A Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS) Narrative


Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS)

Last Update

September 21, 2015

Aliases

Al-Qa’ida in Iraq; AQI; Islamic State (IS); Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; Islamic State in Iraq; ISI; ISIL; Al-Qa’ida in Mesopotamina

ISIS has gone by several aliases throughout its evolution, beginning as Al-Qa’ida in Iraq and eventually shortening its name to the Islamic State. We will refer to the group as the Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS) throughout this profile rather than discussing the group with the name it used at each point in history.

History

The Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS) was originally created in 2004 under the name al-Qa’ida in Iraq (AQI) through a partnership between Salafi-Sunni leader Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi and Al-Qa’ida Core leadership.[1] ISIS initially drew support from the marginalized Sunni population in Iraq, focusing their rhetoric on opposition to the coalition government and United States military operations.[2] Al-Zarqawi worked quickly to expand membership, amassing an estimated 1,000 militants by 2005, and to consolidate power for himself, shirking the leadership of Al-Qa’ida who wished to maintain a high degre of oversight.[3] In January 2006, al-Zarqawi established an umbrella organization, the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC), in collaboration with five other Sunni Islamist groups.[4] This organization represented the broadening of ISIS’s goals toward increased Sunni collaboration and desire to transition from insurgency toward creating an Islamic State. On June 7, 2006, al-Zarqawi was killed in a U.S. airstrike, and in October 2006 Abu Omar al Baghdadi assumed leadership, announcing a new coalition under the name Islamic State of Iraq.[5] From 2007 to 2010, ISIS faltered, losing ground, membership, and two leaders, against a surge of U.S. troops and opposing Sunni Awakening forces.[6]  

A turning point for ISIS occurred in May 2010 when Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi gained control of the dwindling ISIS force and begin rebuilding the organization into the insurgency it is today.[7] Following this leadership change, ISIS turned increasingly to Syria, on the brink of civil war, and embraced the goal of establishing a cross-national caliphate, an Islamic government, under the command of Baghdadi.[8] Toward this end, ISIS developed a detailed governmental and administrative structure, isolated and eventually broke ties with Al-Qa’ida Core and affiliates, launched an extensive social media campaign to attract foreign adherents, and employed increasingly brutal tactics to captivate international attention.[9] ISIS made crucial territorial gains in the summer of 2014, taking over cities such as Mosul, Tikrit, Fallujah and Al-Qaim.[10] The estimation of the actual amount of territory under ISIS’s control varies; however, it is believed to be between 15,000 and 35,000 square miles.[11] Along with taking over large areas of Iraqi territory in June, the group announced their intention for a caliphate that would surpass borders and claim authority over Muslims worldwide.[12] To finance their operations ISIS uses a variety of techniques including extortion, kidnap for ransom, theft, sales of government equipment, trade, granaries, and ship refinements.[13] The groups’ most serious form of funding comes from selling the oil of oil reserves that it has captured.[14] ISIS threatens ethnic and religious minorities in Iraq and Syria, as well as other Islamic sects.[15] The group typically uses beheadings, public executions, crucifixions, and mass shootings against their targets.[16]

Home Base

Iraq

Founding Year

2004

Ideology

Religious-Islamist- Sunni-Salafist-Jihadist[17]

Specific Goals

  • Create a Sunni Islamic government that spans across Iraq and Syria, establishing an Islamic caliphate[18]
  • Implement governmental rule by sharia[19]
  • Defend Sunni Islamic interests in Iraq and expel coalition forces[20]
  • ISIS has at different times produced media urging jihadists groups and individuals across the world to attack infidels (non-Muslims), Shia Muslims, the United States, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, France, Canada, Australia, Britain, and Europe (generally).[21]

Political Activity

  • An initial umbrella organization, the Islamic State of Iraq, was created in 2006 to incorporate Islamic governance in Iraq and implement sharia.[22]
  • In June 2014, ISIS declared an Islamic caliphate to rule over Muslims throughout the world.[23]
  • ISIS sets up governments and provides basic government-like services in the areas under its control.[24]

 

Financing

  • Charities/donations:
    • The U.S. Department of Treasury has tracked donations to ISIS from individuals in Qatar and Yemen.[25]
  • Smuggling:
    • A major source of income is through selling oil from captured oil fields that can generate up to $2 million dollars a day. Other sources of income include ship refinements, trade, granaries, and selling government equipment.[26]
    • ISIS also steals and sells antiquities on the black market.[27]
  • Extortion:
    • ISIS taxes the local population as well as truckers passing through its territory.[28]
    • ISIS also places extortion taxes on small and large businesses.[29]
  •  State Sponsorship:
    • On February 16, 2012, the U.S. Department of Treasure designated the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS) as a supporter of terrorism, claiming MOIS provided funding and arms to ISIS.[30] However, specific dates and amounts were not clarified.
  • Kidnap for Ransom:
    • ISIS has been known to kidnap individuals and ransom them for money.[31]

Leadership and Structure over time

  • ISIS has a highly centralized military and governmental structure with several cabinets and divisions all under the central leadership of the Caliph. Under the Caliph are two deputies, currently Abu Muslim al Turkmani and Abu Ali Anbari who supervise operations in Iraq and Syria respectively.[32] Operations are then organized under six councils, the Military Council, the Defense, Security, and Intelligence Council, the Judicial Council, the Shura Council, the Fiscal Council, and the Media Council, each with chairmen and members charged with overseeing matters within their jurisdiction.[33] As ISIS has gained territories and set up government entities, the Caliph has appointed governors to oversee specific towns and areas.
  • 2004-2006: Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi founded and led AQI until his death in a joint US-Iraqi airstrike.[34]
  • 2006-2010: Abu Hamza al Muhajir was appointed leader of AQI after the death of Zarqawi.[35] Later in 2006 when the Islamic State was formed, Abu Omar al Baghdadi became leader of the umbrella organization.[36] Al Muhajir and al Baghdadi served as leaders of ISIS until they were both killed in a joint Iraqi-U.S. airstrike and raid in April 2010.[37]
  • 2010-Present: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (note: no relation to previous leader Abu Omar al Baghdadi)

Strength

  • 2005: Greater than 1,000.[38]
  • 2007: 5,000-10,000[39]
  • 2008: 2,000-4,000[40]
  • 2009: 1,000-2,000[41]
  • 2010: 1,000-2,000[42]
  • 2011: 1,000-2,000[43]
  • 2012: 1,000-2,000[44]
  • 2013: 6,000-7,000[45]
  • 2014: 20,000-31,500[46]

Allies and Suspected Allies

  • ISIS initially drew condemnation from other insurgent groups, including Al-Qa’ida, who feared that their brutal indiscriminate tactics would isolate potential adherents and local supporters. However, in 2014 and 2015 as they demonstrated their military prowess, continued their extensive social media campaign, and captivated the international media, groups increasingly flocked to pledge support and align themselves with the Islamic State. As a result, many of the relationships below have vacillated between supportive and oppositional as the Islamic State has evolved and gained notoriety.
  • Al-Qa’ida (former ally, currently enemies)
    • Al-Qa’ida worked with al-Zarqawi in 2004 to found Al-Qa’ida in Iraq with the intention that the group would operate as the local Al-Qa’ida branch under the influence of Al-Qa’ida Core.[47] While ISIS continued the be an official affiliate of Al-Qa’ida, the relationship was often strained and fractious; Al-Qa’ida reprimanded ISIS for targeting Shiite Muslims in 2005, stating that AQI should mainly target coalition forces.[48] The relationship grew more tense as al-Baghdadi used increasingly brutal tactics and tried to take over full leadership of the Al-Nusrah Front. In February 2014, Al-Qa’ida leader Zawahiri publically ended their alliance and dismissed ISIS from the network.[49]
  • Iran (former ally,  currently enemies)
    • On February 16, 2012, the U.S. Department of Treasury designated the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS) as a supporter of terrorism for provided funding and arms to ISIS (then al-Qa’ida in Iraq)—however their report does not provide specific evidence or dates.[50] Iran has collaborated with al-Qa’ida in the past based on their common opposition to the United States’ involvement in the region. In 2001 when al-Zarqawi fled coalition forces in Afghanistan, the MOIS allowed him and others safe haven in Iran.[51] However, subsequent to ISIS’s 2014 advancement in Iraq, the Iranian government has voiced their support of military action against the group.[52]
  • Jaish al-Taifa al-Mansoura (ally)
    • Jaish al-Taifa al-Mansoura were part of the 2006 Mujahideen Shura Council, a Sunni umbrella organization that took part in the insurgency against coalition forces.[53]
  • Islamic Jihad Brigades (ally)
    • Islamic Jihad Brigades were part of the 2006 Mujahideen Shura Council, a Sunni umbrella organization that took part in the insurgency against coalition forces.[54]
  • al-Ghuraba Brigades (ally)
    • al-Ghuraba Brigades were part of the 2006 Mujahideen Shura Council, a Sunni umbrella organization that took part in the insurgency against coalition forces.[55]
  • Saraya Ansar al-Tawhid (ally)
    • Allied with ISIS since the creation of their umbrella organization the Mujahideen Shura Council in 2006.[56]
  • Ansar al-Islam (suspected ally, rival)
    • From 2004 to 2010 Ansar al-Islam had a mixed relationship, often working together and conducting joint attacks and at other times working in competition.[57]
  • In addition to the groups mentioned above, the following groups have sworn allegiance or support to ISIS according to the Intel Center, a private counterterrorism intelligence firm.[58]
    • Swore support or allegiance in 2014:
      • al-I'tisam of the Koran and Sunnah
      • Abu Sayyaf Group
      • Ansar al-Khilafah
      • Ansar al-Tawhid in India
      • Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF)
      • Bangsmoro Justice Movement (BJM)
      • al-Huda Battalion in Maghreb of Islam
      • Heroes of Islam Brigade in Khorasan
      • The Soldiers of the Caliphate in Algeria
      • Jundullah (Pakistan group, not Iranian group)
      • Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)
      • Islamic Youth Shura Council
      • Jaish al-Sahabah in the Levant
      • Faction of Katibat al-Imam Bukhari
      • Jamaat Ansar Bait al-Maqdis
      • Jund al-Khilafah in Egypt
      • Liwa Ahrar al-Sunna in Baalbek
      • Islamic State Libya (Darnah)
      • Shura Council of Shabab al-Islam Darnah
      • Mujahideen Indonesia Timor (MIT)
      • Mujahideen Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem (MSCJ)
      • Tehreek-e-Khilafat
      • Okba Ibn Nafaa Battalion
      • Mujahideen of Yemen
      • Supporters for the Islamic State in Yemen
      • al-Tawheed Brigade in Khorasan
      • Supporters of the Islamic State in the Land of the Two Holy Mosques
    • Swore support or allegiance in 2015:
      • Leaders of the Mujahid in Khorasan
      • Boko Haram
      • Jund al-Khilafah in Tunisia
      • Jemaah Islamiyah
      • al-Murabitoun
      • Mujahideen of Tunisia of Kairouan

Rivals and Enemies

  • Government of Iraq (enemy)
    • A central ISIS goal is to displace the current Iraqi government with a religious caliphate.[59]
    • Following the ISIS captured Mosul in the spring of 2014, the Iraqi military lost $27B in military hardware; four (of 14) military divisions and a federal police unit have also been lost to desertion.[60]
  • United States of American (enemy)
    • ISIS is avowedly against the United States and has attacked U.S. forces directly in Iraq and advocated for inspired jihadists to launch attacks from within the United States. ISIS most famously gained international attention and condemnation for posting videos beheading American journalists and activists in the fall of 2014.[61]
  • Syria (enemy)
    • ISIS began their campaign against the Syrian government in 2011, gaining notoriety for their highly brutal tactics including decapitations and enforcement of sharia wherever they gained territory.[62] As ISIS’s relationship with other rebel groups continued to fracture, they increasingly changed the focus of their attacks to other Islamic coalitions striving to overthrow the Syrian regime.[63]
  • Lebanon (enemy)
    • In early 2014, ISIS declared Lebanon as a target due to Hezbollah’s involvement in Syria.[64] Violence has spilled across the Lebanese-Syrian border as ISIS and al-Nusrah have both perpetrated suicide attack against Hezbollah.[65]
  • Jordan (enemy)
    • On February 3, 2015, ISIS released a video showing the graphic burning alive of a Jordanian pilot who had been captured in their territory.[66] Jordan responded with reprisal executions of ISIS affiliated prisoners and launched air strikes against the group.[67]
  • Sons of Iraq (enemy)
    • Sons of Iraq (aka "Sunni Awakening") was a coalition Iraqi tribes organized with U.S. support to fight extremists in Iraq, including ISIS.[68]
  • Free Syrian Army (enemy)
    • The Free Syrian Army (FSA) has opposed ISIS advances since the latter seized Azaz, a FSA-controlled town near Syria's border with Turkey in September 2013.[69]
  • Islamic Front
    • Since 2014, ISIS has been publically denounced by and exchanged fire the Islamic Front.[70]
  • Jaish al-Mujahedin (JM)
    • Since 2014, ISIS has been publically denounced by and exchanged fire with the Islamic Front.[71]
  • Syrian Revolutionaries Front (SFR)
    • Since 2014, ISIS has been publically denounced by and exchanged fire the Syrian Revolutionaries Front.[72]
  •  Al-Nusrah Front (former ally, currently rivals)
    • In 2011, ISIS sent members to Syria under the leadership of Abu Muhammad al-Jawlani to set up a front and take advantage of the security void created by the Syrian civil war. Jawlani was successful in creating Jabhat al Nusrah and in April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the expansion of ISI to Syria, officially rebranding the organization as the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIL).[73] Al-Jawlani was not consulted before the announcement and denounced al-Baghdadi’s claims, confirming instead his allegiance directly to al-Qa’ida’s leadership.[74] The groups have openly clashed and killed each other’s members since ISIS’s dismissal from al-Qa’ida; however, reports also indicate the two groups have conducted joint operations in Syria.[75]
  • Hezbollah (enemy)
    • In 2011 Hezbollah sent troops to Syria on behalf of the Asad regime and has clashed with rebel forces there, including ISIS.[76] The groups are ideologically opposed and have targeted each other in Syria and in Lebanon. In 2015, as ISIS continued to expand, the groups also clashed along the Lebanese-Syrian border.[77]
  • 1920s Revolutionary Brigades (enemy)
    • The 1920s Revolutionary Brigades was originally formed to combat the United States-led coalition forces in Iraq. However, according to the Long War Journal, in 2007 they began coordinating with U.S. forces in order to expel ISIS militants from the region and have focused their efforts on mitigating the influence of ISIS.[78]

Counterterrorism Efforts

  • Domestic Military:
    • Iraq: The Iraqi government in coalition with the United States has been fighting ISIS and its earliest incarnations since 2004. There have been both separate and collaborative counterterrorism efforts on behalf of the U.S. and Iraqi governments against ISIS and its predecessor, AQI. U.S.-Iraqi efforts have killed two AQI leaders, Abu Ayub al-Masri and Abu Umar al-Baghdadi, in joint military actions. Collaborative efforts between the Maliki administration and the Sunni vigilante group known as the Sons of Iraq contributed to the reduction of ISIS influence.[79]
    • Syria: The Asad regime has been using military force to fight ISIS since the group first gained a foothold in the country in 2013. The regime has relied on the support of Iran, Russia, and Hezbollah in fighting the Islamic State along with the myriad of other armed groups seeking to overthrow the government in Syria.[80]
  • International Political: The Global Coalition to Counter ISIL
    • On September 10, 2014, the United States announced the creation of a 60 member Global Coalition to Counter ISIL with the goal of defeating the organization.[81]
    • The members as of September 10, 2014 include: Albania, Arab League, Australian, Austria, Bahrain, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, European Union, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States.[82]
  • International Law Enforcement:
    • Azerbaijan: In 2014 the Ministry of National Security announced it had arrested a number of individuals suspected of being members of ISIS.[83]
    • Germany: In 2014 Germany prosecuted a number of individuals under the charges of relating to supporting or having membership in ISIS.[84]
    • Indonesia: In 2014 the Indonesia government arrested a number of citizens under the charge of attempting to join ISIS.[85]
    • Jordan: Jordan has sought to cut off any funding through their territory to ISIS.[86]
    • Kuwait: On December 5, 2014, Kuwait security forces dismantled an ISIS-affiliated cell planning attacks within Kuwait.[87]
    • Philippines: In 2014 the Philippine Anti-Money Laundering Council froze the assets of six members of ISIS and al-Nusrah Front.[88]
    • Saudi Arabia: In 2014 Saudi Arabia banned all funding and support of ISIS.[89] In 2015, Saudi security forces raided an ISIS-linked cell on the board town of al-Khafji and arrested a suspected member.[90]
    • Turkey: On March 30, 2014, Turkish security forces arrested three ISIS members charged with killing a Turkish security personnel.[91]
    • United Kingdom: In 2014, the United Kingdom froze the assets of three British citizens due to their membership in ISIS.[92]
    • United Nations: On February 12, 2015, the United Nations Security Council unanimously voted for a resolution asking member states to freeze funds and assets supporting ISIS.[93]
    • United States: The United States has taken a number of law enforcement actions against ISIS including using intelligence and security forces to investigate and counter ISIS-inspired plots domestically and counter their funding internationally.[94]
  • International Military:
    • Albania: In 2014 Albania agreed to provide 10 AK-56 assault rifles, 22 million AK rounds, 32,000 artillery shells, and 15,000 grenade launchers to forces, particularly Kurdish, fighting ISIS.[95]
    • Australia: Provided aircraft, military equipment, and a special operations task force to support forces opposing ISIS.[96]
    • Bahrain: Participated in airstrikes against ISIS in Syria.[97]
    • Belgium: In 2014 Belgium pledged to provide six F-16s and 120 personnel to assist with air strikes against ISIS in Iraq.[98]
    • Canada
      • Provided military advisors to aid training in Iraq.
      • Provided $10 million worth of military equipment and supplies.[99]
    • Croatia: In 2014 Croatia committed to proving weapons and equipment to Kurdish forces fighting ISIS.[100]
    • Czech Republic: Provided $2 million worth of weapons and ammunition to Iraqi forces fighting ISIS.[101]
    • Denmark: Provided seven F-16s to assist with air strikes against ISIS in Iraq.[102]
    • Estonia: Provided a transport aircraft and one million machine gun cartridges to forces fighting ISIS.[103]
    • France: Participated in airstrikes against ISIS in Syria. France has also conduced reconnaissance flights over Iraq to gather intelligence on ISIS.[104]
    • Germany
      • In 2014 Germany sent 40 paratroopers to Iraq to train Kurdish fighters and trained 20 Kurdish fighters in Germany.
      • Provided Kurdish troops with 16,000 assault rifles, hundreds of anti-tank weapons, hand grenades, armored vehicles, mine clearing equipment, night-vision goggles, and camping equipment.[105]
    • Hungary: Provided ammunition, armor piercing shells, and mines to forces fighting ISIS.[106]
    • Italy
      • Provided $2.5 million worth of weapons and ammunition to Kurdish forces.
      • Provided support, such was refueling planes, during air strike missions.[107]
    • Jordan: The Royal Jordanian Air Force worked with the global coalition and launched airstrikes against ISIS in 2014 and 2015.[108]
    • Netherlands
      • Provided body armor to Kurdish forces fighting ISIS.
      • Provided eight F-16 fighters and 380 personnel to aid counterterrorism efforts.[109]
    • Qatar: Participated in air strikes against ISIS.[110]
    • Russia: According to Syrian government military sources, in September 2015, Russia provided the Asad regime with weapons and ammunition to counter ISIS.[111]
    • Saudi Arabia: Participated in air strikes against ISIS in Syria and donated $100 million to the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Center.[112]
    • Turkey: In the summer of 2015 after ISIS perpetrated attacks across the border in Turkey, the government offered up two bases to the United States to use for air strikes.[113] While the Turkish government also opposes Kurdish forces, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan pledged collaborate with U.S. and counter ISIS, including a deal in August 2015 to launch air strikes against the group.[114]
    • United Arab Emirates: Participated in air strikes against ISIS in Syria.[115]
    • United Kingdom
      • Participated in air strikes against ISIS in Syria.
      • Proved $2.5 million worth of weapons and ammunition.
      • Provided Royal Air Force Tornadoes and helicopters for reconnaissance, bombings, and supply deliveries.[116]
    • United States
      • There have been both separate and collaborative counterterrorism efforts on behalf of the U.S. and Iraqi governments against AQI/ISIS. U.S.-Iraqi efforts killed two AQI leaders, Abu Ayub al-Masri and Abu Umar al-Baghdadi, in joint military raids in 2010.[117]
      • The U.S. has aided and supported various local Sunni militant and rival tribal groups to help counter ISIS in the mid-2000s. Its collaborative efforts with the Sunni vigilante group Sons of Iraq contributed to the reduction of ISIS influence and rank.[118]
      • Counterterrorism efforts against ISIS have included allied airstrikes against the group.[119]
      • The United States has also sent an additional 1,500 troops to Iraq to help counter the group by training Iraqi and Kurdish forces.[120]
      • Since August 2014, U.S.-led coalition forces have targeted ISIS positions with drones and missiles, in attempt to degrade its military capacity.[121] Several ISIS leaders have reportedly been killed and wounded in these air strikes.[122]

United States Government Designations

  • Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO), December 17, 2004.[123]
    • The U.S. designation treats ISIS/ISIL and AQI as the same organization.[124]

Other Governments’ Designations

  • Australia (Originally as AQI in March 2005, amended in December 2013): Listed Terrorist Organization[125]
  • Canada (August 2012): Proscribed Terrorist Organization[126]
  • Egypt (November 2014): Terrorist Organization[127]
  • India (December 2014): Banned Organizations[128]
  • Indonesia (August 2014): Terrorist Organization[129]
  • New Zealand (December 2013): Proscribed Terrorist Organization[130]
  • Pakistan (August 2015): Proscribed Organizations[131]
  • Russia (December 2014): Terrorist Organizations[132]
  • Saudi Arabia (March 2014): Terrorist Group[133]
  • Tajikistan (May 2015): Terrorist Organization[134]
  • Turkey (October 2013): Terrorist Organization[135]
  • United Arab Emirates (November 2014): Designated Terrorist Organization[136]
  • United Kingdom (June 2014): Proscribed Terrorist Organizations[137]
  • United Nations (Originally listed as AQI in October 2004, amended to include Islamic State in May 2013): Entities and other groups and undertakings associated with Al-Qaida[138]
 

[1] Zachary Laub and Jonathan Masters, “Backgrounder: The Islamic State,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 18, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811.

[2] Cole Bunzel, “From paper state to caliphate: The ideology of the Islamic State,” Brookings Institute, March 2015, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2015/03/ideology-of-islamic-state-bunzel/the-ideology-of-the-islamic-state.pdf

[3] Bryan Price, Dan Milton, Muhammad al-`Ubaydi and Nelly Lahoud, “The Group that Calls Itself a State: Understanding the Evolution and Challenges of the Islamic State,” Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, December 16, 2014, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the-group-that-calls-itself-a-state-understanding-the-evolution-and-challenges-of-the-islamic-state; U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2005, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 28, 2006, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2005/65275.htm

[4] Seth Jones and Martin Libicki, “How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa’ida,” RAND Corporation, 2008, http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2008/RAND_MG741-1.pdf; Kenneth Katzman, Al Qaeda in Iraq: Assessment and Outside Links, (CRS Report No. RL32217) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008), 12, http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32217.pdf.

[5] Richard Barrett, “The Islamic State,” The Soufan Group, November 2014, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf; Kenneth Katzman, Al Qaeda in Iraq: Assessment and Outside Links, (CRS Report No. RL32217) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008), #, http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32217.pdf

[6] “What Is Islamic State?” BBC News, Updated June 29, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144

[7] Richard Barrett, “The Islamic State,” The Soufan Group, November 2014, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf

[8] Richard Barrett, “The Islamic State,” The Soufan Group, November 2014, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf

[9] Richard Barrett, “The Islamic State,” The Soufan Group, November 2014, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf

[10] Zachary Laub and Jonathan Masters, “Backgrounder: The Islamic State,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 18, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811; “ISIS Fast Facts,” CNN News, May 23, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/08/world/isis-fast-facts/index.html.

[11] “What Is Islamic State?” BBC News, Updated June 29, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144

[12] “Battle for Iraq and Syria in Maps,” BBC News, Updated September 17, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27838034; “ISIS Fast Facts,” CNN News, May 23, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/08/world/isis-fast-facts/index.html.

[13] Richard Barrett, “The Islamic State,” The Soufan Group, November 2014, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf; “What Is Islamic State?” BBC News, Updated June 29, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144; Zachary Laub and Jonathan Masters, “Backgrounder: The Islamic State,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 18, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811; U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2013, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 2014, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2013/

[14] Ben Piven, “Who, What and Where Is ISIL? Explaining the Islamic State,” Al Jazeera, September 18, 2014, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/9/18/isil-threat-explained.html

[15] “Iraq: ISIS Abducting, Killing, Expelling Minorities,” Human Rights Watch, July 19, 2014 https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/07/19/iraq-isis-abducting-killing-expelling-minorities.

[16] Ben Piven, “Who, What and Where Is ISIL? Explaining the Islamic State,” Al Jazeera, September 18, 2014, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/9/18/isil-threat-explained.html; “What Is Islamic State?” BBC News, Updated June 29, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144

[17] Zachary Laub and Jonathan Masters, “Backgrounder: The Islamic State,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 18, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811

[18] Gus Martin, ed, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism (Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2011)

[19] Zachary Laub and Jonathan Masters, “Backgrounder: The Islamic State,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 18, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811

[20] “ISIS Fast Facts,” CNN News, May 23, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/08/world/isis-fast-facts/index.html.

[21] Ali Abdelaty and Suleiman Al-Khalidi, “Islamic State urges followers to escalate attacks in Ramadan,” Reuters, June 23, 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/06/23/us-mideast-crisis-ramadan-idUSKBN0P31YH20150623; Rick Noack, “The Islamic State wants to attack these Western countries,” The Washington Post, September 22, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/09/22/the-islamic-state-wants-to-attack-these-western-countries/

[22] Kenneth Katzman, Al Qaeda in Iraq: Assessment and Outside Links, (CRS Report No. RL32217) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008), http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32217.pdf; Bill Roggio, “The Rump Islamic Emirate of Iraq,” The Long War Journal, October 16, 2006, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2006/10/the_rump_islamic_emi.php

[23] “ISIS Fast Facts,” CNN News, May 23, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/08/world/isis-fast-facts/index.html.

[24] “The Islamic State’s organizational structure one year in,” Al Monitor, July 2, 2015, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2015/07/islamic-state-caliphate-ministries-armies-syria-iraq.html#

[25] U.S. Department of the Treasury, Press Center, Press Releases, Treasury Designates Al-Qa’ida Supporters in Qatar and Yemen, December 18, 2013, http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/jl2249.aspx; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Press Center, Press Releases, Treasury Designates Twelve Foreign Terrorist Fighter Facilitators, September 24, 2014, http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/jl2651.aspx.

[26] Ben Piven, “Who, What and Where Is ISIL? Explaining the Islamic State,” Al Jazeera, September 18, 2014, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/9/18/isil-threat-explained.html

[27] Ben Piven, “Who, What and Where Is ISIL? Explaining the Islamic State,” Al Jazeera, September 18, 2014, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/9/18/isil-threat-explained.html

[28] Ben Piven, “Who, What and Where Is ISIL? Explaining the Islamic State,” Al Jazeera, September 18, 2014, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/9/18/isil-threat-explained.html

[29] Kenneth Katzman, Al Qaeda in Iraq: Assessment and Outside Links, (CRS Report No. RL32217) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008), #, http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32217.pdf; Zachary Laub and Jonathan Masters, “Backgrounder: The Islamic State,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 18, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811; Ben Piven, “Who, What and Where Is ISIL? Explaining the Islamic State,” Al Jazeera, September 18, 2014, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/9/18/isil-threat-explained.html

[30] U.S. Department of Treasury, Press Center, Treasury Designates Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security for Human Rights Abuses and Support for Terrorism, February 16, 2012,  http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/tg1424.aspx

[31] Ben Piven, “Who, What and Where Is ISIL? Explaining the Islamic State,” Al Jazeera, September 18, 2014, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/9/18/isil-threat-explained.html

[32] Richard Barrett, “The Islamic State,” The Soufan Group, November 2014, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf

[33] “The Islamic State’s organizational structure one year in,” Al Monitor, July 2, 2015, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2015/07/islamic-state-caliphate-ministries-armies-syria-iraq.html#

[34] Gus Martin, ed, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism (Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2011)

[35] Kenneth Katzman, Al Qaeda in Iraq: Assessment and Outside Links, (CRS Report No. RL32217) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008), http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32217.pdf

[36] Richard Barrett, “The Islamic State,” The Soufan Group, November 2014, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf

[37] “Senior Iraqi al-Qaeda leaders ‘killed’,” BBC News, April 19, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8630213.stm

[38] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2005, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 28, 2006, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2005/65275.htm

[39] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2007, Chapter 6 -- Terrorist Organizations, April 30, 2008, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2007/103714.htm

[40] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2008, Terrorist Organizations, April 30, 2009, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2008/122449.htm

[41] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2009, Terrorist Organizations, August 5, 2010, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2009/140900.htm

[42] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2010, Terrorist Organizations, August 18, 2011, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2010/170264.htm

[43] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2011, Terrorist Organizations, July 31, 2012, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2011/195553.htm

[44] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, May 30,

2013, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm

[45] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2013, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 2014, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2013/; Cameron Stewart, “Aussies join new Syrian extremists,” The Australian, December 31, 2013.

[46] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2014/239413.htm; “ISIS Fast Facts,” CNN News, May 23, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/08/world/isis-fast-facts/index.html; Samiha Shafy, “Dueling Jihadists: Is the Islamic State Beating Al-Qa’ida,” Spiegel Online, August 23, 2014, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/brookings-scholar-explains-the-disturbing-rise-of-the-islamic-state-a-987294.html

[47] Richard Barrett, “The Islamic State,” The Soufan Group, November 2014, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf

[48] Ibrahim Al-Marashi, “The Truth about Beheadings,” Al Jazeera, November 24, 2014 http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/11/truth-about-beheadings-20141123112635132978.html; Kenneth Katzman, Al Qaeda in Iraq: Assessment and Outside Links, (CRS Report No. RL32217) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008), http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32217.pdf; Mahan Abedin, “Mujahideen Shura Council in Iraq: Fact or Fiction?” Terrorism Focus 3 (2006) http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5btt_news%5d=717

[49] Seth Jones, “A Persistent Threat: The Evolution of al Qa’ida and Other Salafi Jihadists,” RAND National Defense Research Institute, June 4, 2014. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR600/RR637/RAND_RR637.pdf

[50] “Treasury Designates Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security for Human Rights Abuses and Support for Terrorism.” United States Department of the Treasury. February 16, 2012. http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/tg1424.aspx

[51] Federal Reserve Research Division. “Iran’s Ministry of Intelligence and Security: A Profile.” Library of Congress. December 2012. http://fas.org/irp/world/iran/mois-loc.pdf

[52] “Iraq Conflict: Iran’s Rouhani ‘ready to help’.” BBC News Middle East. June 14, 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27847498

[53] Mahan Abedin, “Mujahideen Shura Council in Iraq: Fact or Fiction?” Terrorism Focus 3 (2006) http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5btt_news%5d=717

[54] Mahan Abedin, “Mujahideen Shura Council in Iraq: Fact or Fiction?” Terrorism Focus 3 (2006) http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5btt_news%5d=717

[55] Mahan Abedin, “Mujahideen Shura Council in Iraq: Fact or Fiction?” Terrorism Focus 3 (2006) http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5btt_news%5d=717

[56] Ibrahim Al-Marashi, “The Truth about Beheadings,” Al Jazeera, November 24, 2014 http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/11/truth-about-beheadings-20141123112635132978.html; Kenneth Katzman, Al Qaeda in Iraq: Assessment and Outside Links, (CRS Report No. RL32217) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008), #, http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32217.pdf; Mahan Abedin, “Mujahideen Shura Council in Iraq: Fact or Fiction?” Terrorism Focus 3 (2006) http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5btt_news%5d=717

[57] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2007, Chapter 6 -- Terrorist Organizations, April 30, 2008, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2007/103714.htm; U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2010, Terrorist Organizations, August 18, 2011, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2010/170264.htm;

[58] “Islamic State’s 35 Global Affiliates Interactive World Map,” IntelCenter, Updated May 19, 2015, http://intelcenter.com/maps/is-affiliates-map.html

[59] Gus Martin, ed, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism (Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2011)

[60] Nour Malas and Ghassan Adnan, “Iraq Struggles to Revive Military for Coming Battles With Islamic State.” Wall Street Journal, June 7, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/iraq-struggles-to-revive-military-for-coming-battles-with-islamic-state-1433708543.

[61] Richard Barrett, “The Islamic State,” The Soufan Group, November 2014, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/TSG-The-Islamic-State-Nov14.pdf

[62] Aaron Y Zelin, “Al-Qaeda in Syria: A Closer Look at ISIS (Part I),” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, September 10, 2013, http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/al-qaeda-in-syria-a-closer-look-at-isis-part-i

[63] Aaron Y Zelin, “Al-Qaeda in Syria: A Closer Look at ISIS (Part II),” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, September 11, 2013, http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/al-qaeda-in-syria-a-closer-look-at-isis-part-ii

[64] Radwan Mortada, “ISIS and Al-Nusrah Declare War on Lebanon,”Al-Akhbar English, January 25, 2014.

[65] “Suicide attacks target Shiite town in Lebanon.” Al Monitor: Lebanon Pulse, February 2, 2014. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/02/lebanon-fifth-suicide-attack.html

[66] Rod Nordland and Ranya Kadri, “Jordanian Pilot’s Death, Shown in ISIS Video, Spurs Jordan to Execute Prisoners,” The New York Times, February 3, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/04/world/middleeast/isis-said-to-burn-captive-jordanian-pilot-to-death-in-new-video.html

[67] Sultan Barakat and Andrew Leber, “Jordan, Egypt, and the response to ISIS: Beyond air strikes,” Brookings, February 22, 2015, http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/markaz/posts/2015/02/19-jordan-egypt-isis-response

[68] Zachary Laub and Jonathan Masters, “Backgrounder: The Islamic State,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 18, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811

[69] Bassem Mroue and Zeina Karam, “Al-Qaida Militants Capture Town in Northern Syria.” Associated Press, September 19, 2013 http://bigstory.ap.org/article/jihadis-capture-northern-syrian-town-near-turkey; Marlin Dick, “Syria Rebels Fight Back against ISIS,” The Daily Star, January 4, 2014, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2014/Jan-04/243088-syria-rebels-fight-back-against-isis.ashx#axzz2pRajcBEq..

[70] Edward Dark, “Islamic Front no answer for Syria conflict,” AL Monitor: Syria Pulse, January 13, 2014, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/01/islamic-front-isis-rebel-clashes-syria.html; Aaron Y Zelin, “Al-Qaeda Disaffiliates with the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Febuary 4, 2014, http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/al-qaeda-disaffiliates-with-the-islamic-state-of-iraq-and-al-sham 

[71] Edward Dark, “Islamic Front no answer for Syria conflict,” AL Monitor: Syria Pulse, January 13, 2014, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/01/islamic-front-isis-rebel-clashes-syria.html; Aaron Y Zelin, “Al-Qaeda Disaffiliates with the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Febuary 4, 2014, http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/al-qaeda-disaffiliates-with-the-islamic-state-of-iraq-and-al-sham 

[72] Edward Dark, “Islamic Front no answer for Syria conflict,” AL Monitor: Syria Pulse, January 13, 2014, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/01/islamic-front-isis-rebel-clashes-syria.html; Aaron Y Zelin, “Al-Qaeda Disaffiliates with the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Febuary 4, 2014, http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/al-qaeda-disaffiliates-with-the-islamic-state-of-iraq-and-al-sham 

[73] Seth G Jones, “A Persistent Threat: The Evolution of al Qa’ida and Other Salafi Jihadists.” RAND National Defense Research Institute. June 3, 2014. 7-8. http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR637.html

[74] Aaron Y Zelin, “Al-Qaeda in Syria: A Closer Look at ISIS (Part I),” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, September 10, 2013, http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/al-qaeda-in-syria-a-closer-look-at-isis-part-i

[75] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf

[76] Jeffrey White,“Hizb Allah at War in Syria: Forces, Operations, Effects and Implications,” Combating Terrorism Center at West Point: CTC Sentinel, January 25, 2014, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/hizb-allah-at-war-in-syria-forces-operations-effects-and-implications

[77] “Hezbollah announces battle with ISIS on Syria-Lebanon border,” Al-Arabiya News, June 10, 2015, http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2015/06/10/Hezbollah-announces-battle-with-ISIS-on-Syria-Lebanon-border-.html

[78] Bill Roggio,“1920s Revolutionary Brigades turns on al Qaeda in Diyala,” The Long War Journal, June 12, 2007, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2007/06/1920s_revolution_bri.php

[79] Zachary Laub and Jonathan Masters, “Backgrounder: The Islamic State,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 18, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811

[80] “Syria: The story of the conflict,” BBC News, March 12, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26116868

[81] U.S. Department of State, Bureaus/Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, The Global Coalition to Counter ISIL, September 10, 2014, http://www.state.gov/s/seci/ 

[82] U.S. Department of State, Bureaus/Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, The Global Coalition to Counter ISIL, September 10, 2014, http://www.state.gov/s/seci/  

[83] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf

[84] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf

[85] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf

[86] Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[87] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf

[88] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf

[89] “Saudi Arabia profile- Timeline,” BBC News, Updated May 29, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14703523

[90] Erin Banco, “Saudi Security Forces Launch Raid on Terrorist Cell Linked to ISIS on Kuwait Border,” International Business Times, July 6, 2015, http://www.ibtimes.com/saudi-security-forces-launch-raid-terrorist-cell-linked-isis-kuwait-border-1996999

[91] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf

[92] “Britian freezes assets of three ISIS members,” Al Arabiya News, July 5, 2014, http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/world/2014/07/05/Britain-freezes-assets-of-ISIS-members-.html

[93] Stephanie Coutrix, “Security Council votes to freeze financial assets of ISIL,” United Nations Radio, February 12, 2015, http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/english/2015/02/security-council-votes-to-freeze-financial-assets-of-isil/#.VgAjC99Viko

[94] U.S. Department of Treasury, Press Center, Remarks of Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence David S. Cohen at The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace, Attacking ISIL’s Financial Foundation, October 23, 2014, http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/jl2672.aspx; Matt Apuzzo and Michael S. Schmidt, “F.B.I. Emphasizes Speed as ISIS Exhorts Individuals to Attack,” The New York Times, July 27, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/28/us/fbi-emphasizes-speed-as-isis-exhorts-individuals-to-attack.html

[95] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[96] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[97] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[98] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html

[99] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[100] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[101] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[102] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[103] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[104] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[105] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[106] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[107] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[108] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf

[109] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[110] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html

[111] Tom Perry, “Exclusive: Syrian army starts using new weapons from Russia – military sources,” Reuters, September 18, 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/18/us-mideast-crisis-syria-russia-exclusive-idUSKCN0RH15S20150918

[112] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[113] “Turkey’s Fight Against ISIS Explained,” The New York Times, July 28, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/29/world/europe/turkeys-fight-against-isis-explained.html

[114] “Turkey’s Fight Against ISIS Explained,” The New York Times, July 28, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/29/world/europe/turkeys-fight-against-isis-explained.html; Gordon Lubold and Dion Nissenbaum, “Turkey to Join Coalition’s Airstrikes Against ISIS,” The Wall Street Journal, August 26, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/turkey-to-join-coalitions-airstrikes-against-isis-1440535062

[115] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[116] Yarno Ritzen and Mohsin Ali, “Interactive: Countries countering ISIL,” Al Jazeera, December 16, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/10/isil-us-syria-airstrike-coalition-uae-saudi-2014101142731382476.html; Sebastian Payne, “What the 60-plus members of the anti-Islamic State coalition are doing,” The Washington Post, September 25, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/09/25/what-the-60-members-of-the-anti-islamic-state-coalition-are-doing/

[117] “2 Most Wanted Al Qaeda Leaders in Iraq Killed by US, Iraqi Forces,” Fox News, April 19, 2010, http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/04/19/iraqi-al-qaeda-leader-killed-countrys-intelligence-team-pm-maliki-says/.

[118] Zachary Laub and Jonathan Masters, “Backgrounder: The Islamic State,” Council on Foreign Relations, May 18, 2015, http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811

[119] Ben Hubbard, “US Airstrikes in Iraq Target ISIS Leaders,” The New York Times, November 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/09/world/middleeast/us-airstrikes-in-iraq-target-isis-leaders.html

[120] Ben Hubbard, “US Airstrikes in Iraq Target ISIS Leaders,” The New York Times, November 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/09/world/middleeast/us-airstrikes-in-iraq-target-isis-leaders.html

[121] Michael D. Shear, “Obama Says Iraq Airstrike Effort Could Be Long-Term,” The New York Times, August 9, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/world/middleeast/us-airstrikes-on-militants-in-iraq.html; Chelsea J Carter, Tom Cohen, and Barbara Starr, “US Warplanes, Drones Strike ISIS in Iraq, Again.” CNN News, August 9, 2014, http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/08/world/iraq-options/index.html.

[122] Per Liljas, “Iraq: Coalition Airstrikes Kill ISIS Governor of Mosul,” Time, December 26, 2014, http://time.com/3647361/iraq-isis-governor-mosul/; Ted Thornhill, “Islamic State’s Second-in-Command Is Killed in Coalition Air Strike,” Daily Mail, May 13, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3080090/Islamic-State-s-second-command-killed-alongside-dozens-followers-coalition-air-strike-Iraqi-mosque.html.

[123] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 2015, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2014/239413.htm

[124] Australian Government, Australian National Security, Terrorist Organizations, Islamic State, December 14, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/IslamicState.aspx

[125] Australian Government, Australian National Security, Terrorist Organizations, Islamic State, December 14, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/IslamicState.aspx

[126] Australian Government, Australian National Security, Terrorist Organizations, Islamic State, December 14, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/IslamicState.aspx

[127] “Egypt outlaws ISIL and affiliated groups,” Al Jazeera, December 1, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/12/egypt-outlaws-isil-affiliated-groups-20141215544430594.html

[128] Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Banned Organizations, List of Banned Organizations Under Section 35 of Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967, Updated March 30, 2015, http://www.mha.nic.in/BO

[129] Singgih Soares, “BNPT Declares ISIS a Terrorist Organization,” Tempo.co, August 2, 2014, http://en.tempo.co/read/news/2014/08/02/055596766/BNPT-Declares-ISIS-a-Terrorist-Organization

[130] Australian Government, Australian National Security, Terrorist Organizations, Islamic State, December 14, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/IslamicState.aspx

[131] Zahid Gishkori, “Islamic State listed among proscribed outfits,” The Express Tribune, August 29, 2015, http://tribune.com.pk/story/946859/banned-organisations-is-listed-among-proscribed-outfits/

[132] “Russia calls on all states to put Islamic State, Jabhat al-Nusrah on terrorist lists,” Russia News Agency, December 29, 2014, http://tass.ru/en/world/769912

[133] “Saudi Arabia declares Muslim Brotherhood ‘terrorist group’,” BBC News, March 7, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26487092

[134] “Tajikistan designates ISIL as terrorist group,” Asia-Plus, May 28, 2015, http://news.tj/en/news/tajikistan-designates-isil-terrorist-group

[135] “Turkey works meticulously to stop suspected ISIS members from entering Syria,” Daily Sabah, July 10, 2015, http://www.dailysabah.com/nation/2015/07/10/turkey-works-meticulously-to-stop-suspected-isis-members-from-entering-syria

[136] “UAE Cabinet approves list of designated terrorist organizations, groups,” Emirate News Agency, November 15, 2014, http://www.wam.ae/en/news/emirates-international/1395272478814.html

[137] United Kingdom, Home Office, Proscribed Terrorist Organizations, Updated March 27, 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/417888/Proscription-20150327.pdf

[138] United Nations, Security Council, Press Releases, Security Council Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee Amends Entry of One Entity on Its Sections List, May 30, 2013, http://www.un.org/press/en/2013/sc11019.doc.htm