A Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) Narrative


Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK)

Last Update

January 2015

Aliases

Arteshen Rizgariya Gelli Kurdistan (ARGK); KONGRA-GEL (KGK); Kurdistan Freedom and Defense Congress; Kurdistan People’s Conference; Kurdistan National Liberation Front (ERNK)

History

The Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) is a Kurdish military and political organization formed in Turkey in 1974.[1] The group first engaged in violent activities in 1984.[2] PKK’s initial goal was the creation of an independent Kurdish state.[3] Currently the group advocates for the autonomy and the rights of the Kurdish people in Turkey and in other Kurdish inhabited states in the region.[4]

The PKK has engaged in various attacks against the Turkish government, including bombings and kidnappings, selecting targets both inside Turkey and around Europe.[5] The group is also known to target civilians who do not cooperate with or assist them and to kidnap tourists.[6] The group moved from using predominately rural insurgency tactics to more urban based terrorism in the 1990s. [7] The PKK has an armed wing called the People’s Defense Force as well as a special urban terrorism wing called the Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (TAK), which in 2005 initiated the use of suicide attacks against tourism related targets.[8]

Abdullah Ocalan, the group’s founder and leader, was captured in 1999 and at present remains imprisoned.[9] There have been several cease-fire agreements between the PKK and the Turkish government throughout the years. The first began in 1999 and lasted until 2004.[10] During this time the PKK took steps to try and change its image, part of which included several name changes that finally resulted in the selection of its current name. [11] The Turkish government refused to negotiate however. The attempt at rebranding as a political entity failed, and the group decided to return to violent tactics.[12] The latest cease-fire accord between the group and the Turkish government began in March 2013.[13] However, the group has committed several acts of violence since this date.[14]

Home Base

Turkey

Founding Year

1978[15]

Ideology

Ethnic-Separatist-Kurdish.[16] Leftist-Marxist-Leninist.[17]

Specific Goals

  • Founding through 1980s: The creation of an independent Kurdish state to include southeastern Turkey and part of neighboring countries also inhabited by Kurd such as Iraq and Iran.[18]
  • 1990s-present:
    • Autonomy for Kurds within Turkey. [19]
    • Promotion of civil rights for Kurdish people.[20]

Political Activity

  • During a party congress in 2000, the group decided they would only use political tools to attain their goals upholding an announcement made by Ocalan the previous year. [21] 
  • During the course of the 1999-2004 ceasefire the group’s hardliners gained control and in 2004 succeeded in bringing the self-imposed ceasefire to an end. [22]
  • As of 2014, the group is involved in peace negotiations with the Turkish government.[23]

Financing

  • Smuggling/Trafficking
    • The PKK reputedly controls up to 80 percent of Europe’s drug trade. [24]
    • The PKK charges as much as seven thousand Euros per person to smuggle undocumented immigrants into Europe. One such operation in 2001 was believed to have smuggled 9,000 Kurds from Anatolia to Europe.[25]
    • The PKK often forces undocumented children to sell drugs in Europe, due to their reduced criminal responsibility.[26]
    • The PKK is known to smuggle a wide range of illicit goods, from cigarettes to human blood.[27]
  • Extortion
    • The PKK relies heavily on extortion, pressuring Kurds in eastern and southeastern Turkey through threat of kidnapping and murder.[28]
  • Other
    • PKK money laundering operations have been uncovered in Great Britain, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, France, and Cyprus.[29]
    • The PKK has been associated with numerous counterfeiting rings.[30]
    • The PKK has been connected with prostitution rings operating in Russia.[31]
  • Charities/Donations:
    • The PKK's European branches run fundraising campaigns.[32]
    • The Kurdish diaspora also provides donations and support.[33]

Leadership and Structure over Time

  • The armed wing of the PKK is called the People’s Defense Force (HPG). [34]
  • Abdullah Ocalan is the founder and leader of the PKK. In 1999, Ocalan was arrested and remains imprisoned.[35] He is still recognized as the group’s leader, although there are other members who have certain powers including Murat Karayilan who is the de facto leader of the organization in Ocalan’s absence, Bayik, Duran Kalkan, Fehman Huseyin and Riza Altun who also have leadership roles. [36]
  • 1974-present: Abdullah Ocalan.

Strength

  • 1999: 5,000[37]
  • 2002: 4,000-5,000.[38]
  • 2003: 4,000-5,000.[39]
  • 2004: 4,000-5,000.[40]
  • 2005: 4,000-5,000. [41]
  • 2006: 4,000-5,000.[42]
  • 2007: 4,000-5,000.[43]
  • 2008: 4,000-5,000.[44]
  • 2009: 4,000-5,000.[45]
  • 2010: 4,000-5,000.[46]
  • 2011: 4,000-5,000.[47]
  • 2012: 4,000-5,000.[48]
  • 2013: 4,000-5,000.[49]

Allies and Suspected Allies

  • Kurdistan Free Life Party (PJAK) (ally)
    • Both Turkey and Iran claim that the PJAK is an offshoot of the PKK, though PJAK founders claim it began as a non-violent human rights movement within Iran.[50]
    • As a member of the Union of Communities in Kurdistan (KCK), PJAK shares the goal of an independent Kurdistan with the PKK.[51]
    • The PKK has provided PJAK with access to PKK facilities (e.g., hospitals) and military expertise.[52]
  • Democratic Union Party (PYD) (ally)
    • The PYD is considered a Syrian "sister organization" (others consider it a "front group"[53]) to the PKK, though the PYD itself is not usually characterized as a terrorist organization.[54]
  • Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (ally)
    • In 1992, the PUK served as intermediary in talks between the PKK and the Turkish government.[55]
    • Although there have been tensions between the PUK and PKK-allied groups in the past, since at least 2003, the PUK and PKK have had military ties, shared membership, and often overlapping goals.[56]

Rivals and Enemies

  • Turkey (enemy)
    • With its goal of an independent Kurdish state – which evolved to federal autonomy within Turkey, the PKK has been in direct conflict with the Turkish government since its founding.[57]
    • Recent peace talks have established a ceasefire that, while tense, has held since late 2013.[58]
    • Since 1998, a majority of PKK attacks have occurred within Turkey. Almost a third have targeted the Turkish military, with police and other government targets accounting for nearly a quarter of all other targets.[59]
  • KDP (rival)
    • During the first Gulf War, the PKK and KDP were allies,[60] but during Iraq's so-called "Kurdish civil war" (1994-1997), the PKK and PUK were known to coordinate attacks on the KDP.[61]
  • Islamic State (IS) (enemy)
    • In 2014 Ocalan called for Kurds to mobilize against ISIS.[62]
    • PKK has fought against ISIS.[63]
    • The Turkish government and PKK each considers ISIS a threat.[64]

Counterterrorism Efforts

  • Domestic Law Enforcement:
    • Abdullah Ocalan was jailed and convicted of treason in 1999. [65]
    • In 2009 the Democratic Society Party, was banned in Turkey for suspected links to the PKK; many activists, including members of the PKK, were arrested under the country’s terrorism laws, the trials of many are still ongoing. [66]
  • Domestic Political:
    • The PKK and the Turkish government have engaged in many peace talks over the years with the PKK calling a cease-fire in 1999. [67]
    • From 2009 to 2011, secret peace talks took place in Oslo, Norway.[68]
    • In December 2012, the Turkish Prime Minister stated that another set of peace talks had begun between Ocalan and the Turkish government.[69]
    • The latest reported peace talks occurred in March 2013.[70]
    • As of October 2014, the peace process between PKK and the Turkish government is at risk and depends on Turkey’s position regarding the advancement of the Islamic State (IS) in Kobane.[71]
  • Domestic Military:
    • Over the years the Turkish military has engaged with PKK forces on several occasions attacking PKK positions. [72]
    • During the most recent peace talks the Turkish government has taken steps to try and curb the military’s actions against the PKK in an attempt to build confidence in the process. [73]

United States Government Designations

  • Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO), October 8, 1997.[74]
    • As of 2014, the U.S. government is considering the removal of the PKK from FTO the list.[75]
  • Individuals listed as Specially Designated Narcotics Traffickers (SDNTs) for acting for or on behalf of the PKK, Zeyneddin Geleri, Cerkez Akbulut (a.k.a. Cernit Murat), and Omer Boztepe, February 1, 2012. [76]

Other Governments’ Designations

  • Australia (December 2005) Proscribed Terrorist Organization[77]
  • Canada (December 2002) Proscribed Terrorist Organization[78]
  • European Union (September 2003) Terrorist Organisation[79]
  • New Zealand (October 2010) Designated Terrorist Entity[80]
  • United Kingdom (March 2001) Proscribed Terrorist Organization[81]
 

[1] Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576.

[2] U.S. National Counterterrorism Center, Counterterrorism Calendar 2013, http://www.nctc.gov/site/pdfs/ct_calendar_2015.pdf.

[3] Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576.

[4] Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576.

[5] U.S. National Counterterrorism Center, Counterterrorism Calendar 2015, http://www.nctc.gov/site/pdfs/ct_calendar_2015.pdf.

[6] Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576.

[7] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2013, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 2014, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2013/

[8] U.S. National Counterterrorism Center, Counterterrorism Calendar 2015, http://www.nctc.gov/site/pdfs/ct_calendar_2015.pdf.

[9] Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576.

[10] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[11] “Profile: The PKK,” BBC News, March 21, 2013, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20971100.

[12] “Profile: The PKK,” BBC News, March 21, 2013, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20971100.Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576;

[13] “Profile: The PKK,” BBC News, March 21, 2013, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20971100.

[14] Busra Arslan, “Terror Attacks Recede with Reconciliation Process,” Daily Sabah, April 18, 2014, http://www.dailysabah.com/nation/2014/04/18/terror-attacks-recede-with-reconciliation-process.

[15] European Commission, Joint Report 843, ANNEX: Joint Report from the Commission and the US Treasury Department Regarding the Value of TFTP Provided Data, November 27, 2013, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:a7e5d9fc-7867-11e3-b889-01aa75ed71a1.0001.05/DOC_1&format=PDF.

[16] Officially, the PKK gave up on the dream of full political independence in the mid-1990s, seeking federal autonomy within the Turkish state, instead. Whether this translated to de facto change is contested by Turkish officials. See “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf; U.S. National Counterterrorism Center, Counterterrorism Calendar 2015, http://www.nctc.gov/site/pdfs/ct_calendar_2015.pdf.

[17] U.S. National Counterterrorism Center, Counterterrorism Calendar 2015, http://www.nctc.gov/site/pdfs/ct_calendar_2015.pdf.

[18] Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576.

[19] Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576.

[20] Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576.

[21] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2004, April 2005, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf.

[22] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2004, April 2005, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf.

[23] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[24] Australian National Security, Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), September 18, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/KurdistanWorkersPartyPKK.aspx; Mitchel P Roth and Murat Sever, “The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate: Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime, A Case Study.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30 (2007): 901–20. doi:10.1080/10576100701558620.

[25] Mitchel P Roth and Murat Sever, “The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate: Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime, A Case Study.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30 (2007): 901–20. doi:10.1080/10576100701558620.

[26] Mitchel P Roth and Murat Sever, “The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate: Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime, A Case Study.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30 (2007): 901–20. doi:10.1080/10576100701558620.

[27] Mitchel P Roth and Murat Sever, “The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate: Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime, A Case Study.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30 (2007): 901–20. doi:10.1080/10576100701558620.

[28] Mitchel P Roth and Murat Sever, “The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate: Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime, A Case Study.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30 (2007): 901–20. doi:10.1080/10576100701558620.

[29] Mitchel P Roth and Murat Sever, “The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate: Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime, A Case Study.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30 (2007): 901–20. doi:10.1080/10576100701558620.

[30] Mitchel P Roth and Murat Sever, “The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as Criminal Syndicate: Funding Terrorism through Organized Crime, A Case Study.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30 (2007): 901–20. doi:10.1080/10576100701558620.

[31] Anil Karaca, “Disrupting Terrorist Networks: An Analysis of the PKK Terrorist Organization.” Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2010, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a536525.pdf; Australian National Security, Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), September 18, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/KurdistanWorkersPartyPKK.aspx

[32] Australian National Security, Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), September 18, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/KurdistanWorkersPartyPKK.aspx

[33] Australian National Security, Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), September 18, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/KurdistanWorkersPartyPKK.aspx.

[34] U.S. National Counterterrorism Center, Counterterrorism Calendar 2015, http://www.nctc.gov/site/pdfs/ct_calendar_2015.pdf.

[35] Greg Bruno, “Backgrounder: Inside the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),” Council on Foreign Relations, October 19, 2007. http://www.cfr.org/turkey/inside-kurdistan-workers-party-pkk/p14576.

[36] Australian National Security, Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), September 18, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/KurdistanWorkersPartyPKK.aspx.

[37] “NATO and Non-NATO Europe,” Military Balance 99 (1999): 30-103, doi: 10.1080/04597229908460129

[38] “Selected Non-State Armed Groups,” Military Balance 102 (2002): 224-231, doi: 10.1093/milbal/102.1.224

[39] “Selected Non-State Armed Groups,” Military Balance 103 (2003): 344-354, doi: 10.1093/milbal/103.1.344

[40] “Selected Non-State Armed Groups,” Military Balance 104 (2004): 362-377, doi: 10.1080/725292356

[41] US Department of State. 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf.

[42] “Non-State Armed Groups,” Military Balance 106 (2006): 417-434, doi: 10.1080/04597220600782978

[43] “Non-State Armed Groups,” Military Balance 107 (2007): 421-438, doi: 10.1080/04597220601167872

[44] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2008, Terrorist Organizations, April 30, 2009, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2008/122449.htm

[45] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2009, Terrorist Organizations, August 5, 2010, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2009/140900.htm

[46] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2010, Terrorist Organizations, August 18, 2011, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2010/170264.htm

[47] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, May 30, 2013, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm  

[48] Australian National Security, Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), September 18, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/KurdistanWorkersPartyPKK.aspx.

[49] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2013, April 2014, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2013/

[50] James Brandon, “Iran’s Kurdish Threat: PJAK.” Terrorism Monitor, June 15, 2006, http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/eBooks/Articles/Jamaats%202%20Terrorism%20Monitor.pdf.

[51] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[52] James Brandon, “Iran’s Kurdish Threat: PJAK.” Terrorism Monitor, June 15, 2006, http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/eBooks/Articles/Jamaats%202%20Terrorism%20Monitor.pdf.

[53] Aaron Lund, “The Non-State Militant Landscape in Syria,” Combating Terrorism Center at West Point Sentinel, August 2013, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the-non-state-militant-landscape-in-syria.

[54] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[55] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[56] Wladimir van Wilgenburg. “Kurdish Parties Build Alliance To Curb Barzani’s Power in Syria,” Al-Monitor, September 22, 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/09/kurdkish-parties-puk-pkk-ally-to-curb-barzani-power-in-syria.html.

[57] Australian National Security, Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), September 18, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/KurdistanWorkersPartyPKK.aspx.

[58] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[59] National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). 2013. “Global Terrorism Database [Data File].” http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/.

[60] Anil Karaca, “Disrupting Terrorist Networks: An Analysis of the PKK Terrorist Organization.” Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2010, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a536525.pdf.

[61] Wladimir van Wilgenburg. “Kurdish Parties Build Alliance To Curb Barzani’s Power in Syria,” Al-Monitor, September 22, 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/09/kurdkish-parties-puk-pkk-ally-to-curb-barzani-power-in-syria.html.; Buddhika Jayamaha, “A Daunting Triangle: Turkey, the Kurds, and the ISIL Threat,” Combating Terrorism Center at West Point Sentinel, December, 2014, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/a-daunting-triangle-turkey-the-kurds-and-the-isil-threat.

[62] “PKK Leader: Kurds Should Mobilize against ISIS,” Al Arabiya News, September 23, 2014, http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2014/09/23/PKK-leader-Kurds-should-mobilize-against-ISIS.html.

[63] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[64] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[65] “Profile: The PKK,” BBC News, March 21, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20971100.

[66] “Profile: The PKK,” BBC News, March 21, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20971100.

[67] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[68] “Profile: The PKK,” BBC News, March 21, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20971100.

[69] “Profile: The PKK,” BBC News, March 21, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20971100.

[70] “Profile: The PKK,” BBC News, March 21, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20971100.

[71] Alex MacDonald, “A Guide to Turkey’s Politics and the PKK,” Middle East Eye, October 9 2014, http://www.middleeasteye.net/in-depth/features/guide-turkey-and-kurds-1907278290.

[72] “Profile: The PKK,” BBC News, March 21, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-20971100.

[73] “Turkey and the PKK: Saving the Peace Process,” International Crisis Group, November 6, 2014 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/europe/turkey-cyprus/turkey/234-turkey-and-the-pkk-saving-the-peace-process.pdf

[74] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2013, April 2014, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2013/

[75] David L. Philipps, “Remove the PKK From the Terror List,” The World Post. May 21, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-l-phillips/pkk-terror-group-status_b_3289311.html.

[76] U.S. Department of the Treasury, Press Releases, Treasury Sanctions Supporters of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) Tied to Drug Trafficking in Europe, Press Releases. Press Center. February 1, 2012, http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/tg1406.aspx.

[77]Australian National Security, Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), September 18, 2013, http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/KurdistanWorkersPartyPKK.aspx.

[78] Public Safety Canada, 2014, Currently Listed Entities, Listed Terrorist Entities, March 4, 2014. http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/cntr-trrrsm/lstd-ntts/crrnt-lstd-ntts-eng.aspx.

[79] David L. Philipps, “Remove the PKK From the Terror List,” The World Post. May 21, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-l-phillips/pkk-terror-group-status_b_3289311.html; Kerim Yildiz and Susan Breau, The Kurdish Conflict: International Humanitarian Law and Post-Conflict Mechanisms (London:Routledge, 2010)

[80] New Zealand Police, Designated Individuals and Organisations, 2015, http://www.police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/designated-entities-10-02-2015.pdf.

[81] Home Office, United Kingdom,Proscribed Terrorist Organisations, 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/417888/Proscription-20150327.pdf.