Criminologists and terrorism specialists alike have conducted research on the deterrent effect of policies; however, to date, only criminologists have thoroughly examined the associated displacement of crime and diffusion of benefits. Using data from the Eco-Incidents Database, this study first examines the deterrent effect of government efforts targeting animal rights and environmental terrorism over several years. Next, it extends this application by examining nonterrorist actions by both terrorist groups and nonterrorist groups to see if deterrent actions have any unintended consequences. Results show no evidence of displacement, but rather that several government actions evidenced a diffusion of benefits.
Safer-Lichtenstein, Aaron. 2017. "An Explicit Consideration of Unintended Consequences from Counterterrorism Policy: The Case of Radical Eco-Groups." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism (August). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1057610X.2017.1373430