A Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

Psychology of Terrorism

Psychology of Terrorism

Project Title Investigators Project Period
Deradicalization of Extremists Arie Kruglanski, Michele Gelfand July, 2012 to December, 2017
Tracking Attitudes within American Subculture Clark McCauley, Sophia Moskalenko July, 2012 to December, 2017
Using Experimental Research to Study the Dynamics of Radicalization, Terrorism, and Counterterrorism Anthony Lemieux July, 2012 to December, 2017
Modeling the Emergence of Leaders in Self-Organizing Social Networks Nina Fefferman July, 2016 to July, 2017
Empirical Assessment of Domestic Radicalization (EADR) Michael Jensen, Gary LaFree January, 2013 to December, 2016
Organizational Determinants of Violence and Performance Gina Scott Ligon July, 2012 to December, 2016
Ideologies and Motivations of Terrorist Organizations Assaf Moghadam, Gary Ackerman July, 2012 to December, 2015
Integrating Mental Health and Education Fields into Countering Violent Extremism Stevan Weine, William Braniff May, 2015 to August, 2015
Radicalization of Momin Khawaja Clark McCauley, Sophia Moskalenko July, 2013 to June, 2015
Counter Radicalization of Scientists in CBRN-relevant Technical Fields Arie Kruglanski, Gary Ackerman, Michele Gelfand September, 2013 to April, 2015
Terrorist Behavior and Societal Tolerance of Violence Risa Brooks July, 2012 to December, 2013
Building Resilience to Violent Extremism Among Somali-Americans in Minneapolis-St. Paul Stevan Weine August, 2010 to August, 2012
Countering Jihadist Ideology among Detainees: The Effects and Effectiveness of De-Radicalization Programs Arie Kruglanski, Michele Gelfand June, 2009 to December, 2011
Islamic Radicalization in Europe and North America: Parallels and Divergence Gary Ackerman, John Sawyer, Peter Neumann June, 2008 to December, 2011
Understanding and Combating Mass Casualty Terrorism (MCT) Gary Ackerman, Victor Asal June, 2008 to December, 2011
Homegrown Radicalization and the Role of Social Networks and Social Inclusiveness in the United States Paul Harwood June, 2008 to October, 2011
European Converts to Islam: An Evolving Threat? Emmanuel Karagiannis June, 2009 to May, 2011
Tracking Sympathy and Support of Muslims for Terrorism in Muslim Countries and in the United Kingdom Clark McCauley June, 2008 to May, 2011
Tracking Sympathy and Support of Muslims for Terrorism in the United States Clark McCauley June, 2008 to May, 2011
Key Dimensions in Understanding Terrorist Bomb Attacks Margaret Wilson June, 2008 to May, 2010
Community-level Indicators of Radicalization: A Data and Measurement Workshop Gary LaFree, Kathleen Smarick, Shira Fishman September, 2009 to February, 2010
Relationships among Terrorism-Using Groups, Supporters, Constituencies, Target Groups, and General Populations Clark McCauley January, 2009 to December, 2009
Cell Groups and Individual Radicalization in Indonesia, United Kingdom, and the United States Douglas M. McLeod June, 2008 to December, 2009
Patterns of Radicalization in Political Activism Donatella della Porta June, 2008 to December, 2009
Assessing the Effectiveness of Current De-Radicalization Initiatives and Identifying Implications for the Development of U.S.-Based Initiatives in Multiple Settings June, 2008 to June, 2009
Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami: The Challenge of a Non-Violent Radical Islam Clark McCauley, Emmanuel Karagiannis June, 2005 to June, 2009
State Response and Terrorist Activity Clark McCauley June, 2005 to May, 2009
Mobilization For and Against Terrorism in the Muslim World Clark McCauley, Mansoor Moaddel, Mohammed Hafez May, 2005 to May, 2009
Effects of Uncertainty on Support for Religious Extremism Arie Kruglanski June, 2005 to January, 2009
Support for Terrorism as a Function of Individualistic and Collectivistic Goals Arie Kruglanski June, 2005 to January, 2009
Campus Dialogues Jonathan Wilkenfeld January, 2006 to May, 2008
Decision Making and Simulation Anthony Lemieux, Jonathan Wilkenfeld, Victor Asal June, 2005 to May, 2008
Modeling and Simulation of Individual and Group Decision-making Anthony Lemieux, Jonathan Wilkenfeld June, 2005 to May, 2008
Project Title Publication Date START Authors Publication Type
A Call to Arms: The Need for More Psychological Research on Terrorism June 2016 Horgan, John Journal Article
Actions Speak Louder than Words: A Behavioral Analysis of 183 Individuals Convicted for Terrorist Offenses in the United States from 1995 to 2012 September 2016 Horgan, John Journal Article
Addicted to Hate: Identity Residual among Former White Supremacists August 2017 Simi, Peter Journal Article
An Army of One: Assessing CBRN Pursuit and Use by Lone Wolves and Autonomous Cells January 2014 Ackerman, Gary; Pinson, Lauren Journal Article
Assessing the Effectiveness of Current De‐Radicalization Initiatives and Identifying Implications for the Development of U.S.‐Based Initiatives in Multiple Settings September 2009 Horgan, John Report
Belonging Nowhere: Marginalization & Radicalization Risk among Muslim Immigrants March 2016 Gelfand, Michele Journal Article
Building Resilience to Violent Extremism Among Somali-Americans in Minneapolis-St.Paul August 2012 Weine, Stevan Report
Building Resilience to Violent Extremism Among Somali-Americans in Minneapolis-St.Paul Handout May 2012 Weine, Stevan Research Brief
Characteristics of Violent Lone-Offenders: a Comparison of Assassins and School Attackers (Research Highlight) May 2014 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia Research Brief
Commitment and Extremism: A Goal Systemic Analysis September 2013 Kruglanski, Arie Journal Article
Cues to Catching Deception October 2012 Ackerman, Gary Report
Detainee Deradicalization: A Challenge for Psychological Science January 2010 Kruglanski, Arie; Gelfand, Michele Journal Article
Deterrence, Terrorism, and Psychology July 2009 Crenshaw, Martha Conference Paper
Discussion Point: Is Aaron Alexis part of a larger phenomenon of lone-actor grievance-based violence? September 2013 McCauley, Clark Discussion Point
Divergent Paths to Martyrdom and Significance Among Suicide Attackers September 2015 Kruglanski, Arie Journal Article
Extremes of asymmetric conflict: terrorism and genocide January 2012 McCauley, Clark Book Chapter
Focus groups with children after the World Trade Center attacks January 2007 Pfefferbaum, Betty Journal Article
Friction: How Radicalization Happens to Them and Us January 2011 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia Book
From Cubs to Lions: A Six Stage Model of Child Socialization into the Islamic State August 2016 Horgan, John Journal Article
Fully Committed: Suicide Bombers' Motivation and the Quest for Personal Significance January 2009 Kruglanski, Arie; Fishman, Shira Journal Article
Guest Editorial: Processes of Radicalization and De-Radicalization March 2012 della Porta, Donatella; LaFree, Gary Journal Article
Handbook of Computational Approaches to Counterterrorism March 2013 Book
Historical perspective and future directions in research on psychiatric consequences of terrorism and other disasters November 2005 Pfefferbaum, Betty Book Chapter
Identity and Framing Theory, Precursor Activity, and the Radicalization Process January 2016 Smith, Brent; Damphousse, Kelly; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Roberts, Paxton Report
Implications of Research on Traumatic Stress for Countering Violent Extremism August 2016 Weinberger, Peter Discussion Point
Individual and group mechanisms of radicalization January 2010 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia White Paper
Inspire Magazine: A Critical Analysis of its Significance and Potential Impact Through the Lens of the Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Model January 2014 Lemieux, Anthony; Brachman, Jarret
Lone Wolf Terrorists: What Motivates Them? March 2017 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia Journal Article
Lying About Terrorism April 2014 Young, Joseph
Mental Illness and Terrorism July 2016 James, Patrick Discussion Point
Origin-group differences in the 2007 and 2011 Pew Polls of U.S. Muslims: Reactions to the War on Terrorism February 2017 McCauley, Clark Report
Physiologic reactivity despite emotional resilience several years after direct exposure to terrorism January 2007 Pfefferbaum, Betty Journal Article
Politically motivated violent extremism January 2012 McCauley, Clark Book Chapter
Predictors of Support for Anti-Western Terrorism October 2006 Kruglanski, Arie; Fishman, Shira Research Brief
Preventing and Treating Radicalization: A Two Volume Review June 2015 Kruglanski, Arie Book Review
Profiles of Individual Radicalization in the United States-Foreign Fighters: Infographics October 2017 Jensen, Michael; James, Patrick Research Brief
Profiles of Individual Radicalization in the United States: Preliminary Findings (Oct. 2015) February 2016
Profiles of Radicalization in the United States September 2017 Safer-Lichtenstein, Aaron ; LaFree, Gary; Jensen, Michael; James, Patrick Research Brief
Psychological Factors in Radicalization: A "3N" Approach January 2017 Kruglanski, Arie Book Chapter
Psychological issues in understanding terrorism and the response to terrorism November 2006 McCauley, Clark Book Chapter
Psychology Not Theology: Overcoming ISIS' Secret Appeal October 2014 Kruglanski, Arie Op-ed
Psychology of Terrorism: Introduction to the Special Issue April 2017 Horgan, John Journal Article
Psychosocial Adjustment of Directly Exposed Survivors Seven Years after the Oklahoma City Bombing November 2010 Book Review
Quest for Significance and Violent Extremism: The Case of Domestic Radicalization November 2016 Kruglanski, Arie; LaFree, Gary Journal Article
Rationales for Terrorist Violence in Homegrown Jihadist Groups: A Case Study from The Netherlands February 2016 Horgan, John Journal Article
Recruitment and Radicalization among U.S. Far-Right Terrorists November 2016 Simi, Peter Report
Recruitment and Selection in Violent Extremist Organizations: Exploring What Industrial and Organizational Psychology Might Contribute April 2017 Ligon, Gina Scott Journal Article
Rehabilitating the Terrorists?: Challenges in Assessing the Effectiveness of De-radicalization Programs March 2010 Horgan, John Journal Article
Religious Fundamentalism in the Middle East: A Cross-National, Inter-Faith, and Inter-Ethnic Analysis November 2012 Moaddel, Mansoor Book
Review of Joe Novarro, Hunting terrorists: A look at the psychopathology of terror January 2007 McCauley, Clark Journal Article
Review of Neil J. Smelser, The Faces of Terrorism: Social and Psychological Dimensions January 2008 McCauley, Clark Book Review
Review of Psychology of Terrorism: Classic and Contemporary Insights January 2009 Lemieux, Anthony Journal Article
Secure in their Beliefs: Personal Security, the Quest for Personal Significance, and the Psychology of Extremism April 2015 Kruglanski, Arie Book Chapter
Seeing is believing: communication modality, anger, and support for action on behalf of out-groups October 2013 Glasford, Demis Journal Article
Should START Researchers Embrace the Brain? February 2013 Ligon, Gina Scott; Simi, Peter Discussion Point
Significance Quest Theory as the Driver of Radicalization towards Terrorism June 2015 Kruglanski, Arie; Gelfand, Michele Book Chapter
Social psychological approaches to understanding and preventing terrorism: Toward an interdisciplinary perspective January 2006 Lemieux, Anthony Journal Article
START Symposium 2015: Individual Radicalization Panel October 2015 Presentation
Syria Barometer Survey: Opinions about War in Syria and about Radical Action June 2016 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia Report
Talking To Terrorists? Reflections on Fieldwork Experiences with Non-State Violent Actors February 2009 Horgan, John Conference Paper
Terror's Epistemic Consquences March 2004 Kruglanski, Arie
Terrorism and the State: The Logic of Killing Civilians November 2005 McCauley, Clark Book Chapter
Terrorism Between 'Syndrome' and 'Tool' February 2006 Kruglanski, Arie; Fishman, Shira Journal Article
Terrorism—A (self) love story: Redirecting the significance quest can end violence. October 2013 Kruglanski, Arie; Gelfand, Michele
The Emergence of Lone Wolf Terrorism: Patterns of Behavior and Implications for Intervention September 2015 Smith, Brent; Gruenewald, Jeff; Damphousse, Kelly; Roberts, Paxton Journal Article
The End of Radicalization? September 2012 Horgan, John Discussion Point
The psychological structure of aggression across cultures July 2013 Gelfand, Michele Journal Article
The Psychology of "The War on Terror" and Other Terms for Counterterrorism October 2008 Kruglanski, Arie; Crenshaw, Martha Journal Article
The psychology of lone-wolf terrorism July 2011 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia Journal Article
The Psychology of Radicalization and Deradicalization: How Significance Quest Impacts Violent Extremism February 2014 Kruglanski, Arie; Gelfand, Michele Journal Article
The Psychology of Terrorism January 2017 Kruglanski, Arie Book Chapter
The Psychology of Terrorism October 2001 McCauley, Clark Op-ed
The Psychology of Terrorism: "Syndrome" Versus "Tool" Perspectives November 2005 Kruglanski, Arie Book Chapter
The Psychology of Terrorist Hostage Taking March 2003 Wilson, Margaret Book Chapter
The Radicalization Puzzle: A Theoretical Synthesis of Empirical Approaches to Homegrown Extremism September 2015 Hafez, Mohammed Journal Article
The Role of Anger in the Radicalization of Terrorists January 2017 Davenport, Cory Book Chapter
The Role of Group Processes in Terrorism August 2012 Wilson, Margaret Book Chapter
Thinking Beyond Deterrence April 2013 Dugan, Laura Discussion Point
To the Fringe and Back: Violent Extremism and the Psychology of Deviance April 2017 Kruglanski, Arie Journal Article
Toward a Profile of Lone Wolf Terrorists: What Moves an Individual from Radical Opinion to Radical Action January 2014 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia Journal Article
Toward a Psychology of Humiliation in Asymmetric Conflict April 2017 McCauley, Clark Journal Article
Trauma as a Precursor to Violent Extremism April 2015 Simi, Peter Research Brief
Turning Away from Terrorism: Lessons from Psychology, Sociology, and Criminology September 2014 Horgan, John Journal Article
Two Possible Profiles of Lone-actor Terrorists September 2013 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia White Paper
U.S. Muslim Opinions about ISIS, the Syrian Conflict and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election June 2017 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia Report
U.S. Muslims with Radical Opinions Feel More Alienated and Depressed August 2017 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia Report
Ukrainian Volunteer Fighters in the Eastern Front: Ideas, Political-Social Norms and Emotions as Mobilization Mechanisms February 2016 Karagiannis, Emmanuel Journal Article
Understanding Political Radicalization: The Two-Pyramids Model April 2017 McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia Journal Article
Understanding Terrorism Innovation and Learning: Al-Qaeda and Beyond April 2015 Ranstorp, Magnus Book
Violent Extremism, Community-Based Violence Prevention, and Mental Health Professionals January 2017 Weine, Stevan Journal Article
What Are the Social, Economic, Psychological and Environmental Risk Factors That Lead to Radicalization and Recruitment to Terrorism? September 2017 Weisburd, David Research Review
What do Terrorists Want? January 2001 McCauley, Clark Journal Article
What Should This Fight Be Called? Metaphors of Counterterrorism and Their Implications December 2008 Kruglanski, Arie; Crenshaw, Martha Journal Article
US Muslims with radical opinions feel more alienated and depressed
‘The Price of Certainty’
A case study of radicalization offers implications for CVE
Another Look at Jujitsu Politics
Marginalization, discrimination create greater risk of radicalization for immigrants
New study examines FARC’s development of narco-submarines
START researcher Michele Gelfand and former TRA Sarah Lyons-Padilla present on Capitol Hill
New research finds important lessons for CVE in fields of mental health, education
Discussion Point: Insider Threat in the Aviation Industry
Report finds childhood trauma, history of high-risk behaviors as precursors to violent extremism
START Researchers on Canadian Parliament Shooter Michael Zahaf-Bibeau
New research brief comparing lone-actor violent offenders
Finding answers in social psychology
START adds third course to summer line-up
START Newsletter: Intelligence and security; perspectives on terrorism; Hezbollah; 'big data' and coding
White Paper: Perspectives on Terrorism and Responses to It
Return of the Intern
Researcher Spotlight: Dr. Clark McCauley
START seeking 2014 Outstanding Article Award nominations
Rigid cultural values related to greater number of terrorist attacks
START to offer Massive Open Online Course
Under Secretary Sonenshine speaks to University of Maryland about State Department's public diplomacy successes
Discussion Point: Should START Researchers Embrace the Brain?
Researcher Spotlight: Michele Gelfand
Detecting deception
Discussion Point: The End of Radicalization?
Terrorism: A Self-Love Story
START interns nominated for DHS award
Researcher spotlight: Anthony Lemieux
START investigator and former TRA recipient publish book on the mobilization of right-wing extremism
START's spring seminar features internationally recognized terrorism scholar
START teams up with the University of Oklahoma to study effective counterterrorism strategies
START researcher to publish book on suicide bombings
START researcher invited to discuss terrorists' motivations
START researchers brief Swedish delegation
START Affiliate Releases Report on Al-Awlaki
START Researchers Participate in Session on Psychology of Terrorism
Summer Course Offerings
START Announces 2009-2010 Undergraduate Research Program Award Recipients
New Research Briefs Available from START
START Co-PI Kruglanski receives Regents' Faculty Research Award from University System of Maryland
Kruglanski Honored by Society of Experimental Social Psychology
START Research Symposium: Wednesday, June 28th
START Announces Fellowships for 2005-06
Image Title Job Title Institution
Aaron Safer-Lichtenstein

Graduate Assistant, START

University of Maryland
Andrew Godard Andrew Godard

Project Manager/Researcher, START

University of Maryland
Anthony Lemieux Anthony Lemieux

Associate Professor of Communication and Lead Researcher of the Transcultural Conflict and Violence Program

Georgia State University
Clark McCauley Clark McCauley

Professor of Psychology

Bryn Mawr College
Cory Davenport Cory Davenport

Senior Researcher, START

University of Maryland
Daniel Smith

Senior Research Specialist, START

University of Maryland
Elizabeth Petrun Elizabeth Petrun Sayers

Associate Behavioral and Social Scientist, RAND Corporation

University of Maryland
Emmanuel Karagiannis Emmanuel Karagiannis

Senior Lecturer of International Relations

King's College
Gina Scott Ligon Gina Scott Ligon

Associate Professor of Management and Director of R&D at the Center for Collaboration Science

University of Nebraska Omaha
Kurt Braddock

Post-doctoral teaching fellow

Pennsylvania State University
Nil Satana

Visiting Associate Professor

University of Maryland
Omi Hodwitz

Assistant Professor

University of Maryland
START Researcher Patrick James Patrick James

Project Manager/Researcher, START

University of Maryland
Shira Fishman

Faculty Research Scientist

University of Maryland
Stevan Weine Stevan Weine

Professor of Psychiatry

University of Illinois at Chicago
Victor Asal

Associate Professor of Political Science and Chair of Public Administration

University at Albany, State University of New York

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