A Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

Al-Fatah Narrative


Al-Fatah

Last Update

September 2015

Aliases

Harekat At-Tahrir Al-Wataniyyeh Al-Filastiniyyeh; Palestinian National Liberation Movement

History

Al-Fatah’s name derives from the reversed initials of the Arabic spelling of the Palestinian National Liberation Movement ("Harekat At-Tahrir Al-Wataniyyeh Al-Filastiniyyeth"[1]). Al-Fatah was founded in 1959,[2] and joined the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1968. Under the leadership of Yassar Arafat (from 1969 to 2004), Al-Fatah became the dominant force in the PLO, amassing broad support within Palestinian networks.[3]

Fatah stopped advocating guerrilla warfare in 1993, when Arafat signed the Declaration of Principles (a.k.a. the Oslo Accords), which officially recognized Israel’s right to exist and established the Palestinian National Authority (PA).[4] However, the PA faced significant security challenges (e.g., the Second Intifada, September 2000), after Israel and the PLO failed to reach a final status agreement at Camp David.[5]

Despite such setbacks, Al-Fatah continued to focus on the goal of creating a two-state solution with Israel.[6] Arafat appointed Mahmoud Abbas as Prime Minister of the PA in March 2003, after both the U.S. and Israel refused to work directly with Arafat.[7] Abbas went on to head the PLO after Arafat’s death in November 2004 and was elected president of the PA in January 2005, with Al-Fatah backing.[8]

Failure to establish an independent Palestinian state led to popular discontent,[9] and in the January 2006 elections, Hamas gained control of the Palestinian Legislative Council (the PA's Parliament). When Abbas rejected the results, Hamas battled Al-Fatah in Gaza (June 2007), ousting both Al-Fatah and the PA leadership from the territory.[10] In response, Abbas outlawed Hamas’ armed forces and annulled its seats in the PLC—giving sole rule of the West Bank to Al-Fatah and the PA.[11] The infighting appeared to end in April 2014, when Hamas and Al-Fatah signing a peace treaty to establish a new unity government.[12]

Home Base

  • 1967-1970: Jordan[13]
  • 1970-1982: Lebanon[14]
  • 1982-1993: Tunisia[15]
  • 1994-present: Palestinian Territories (West Bank)[16]

Founding Year

1959[17]

Ideology

Ethnic-Separatist-Palestinian.[18] Secular-Democratic.[19]

Specific Goals

  • The creation of a unified Palestinian identity and mission amongst scattered Palestinian refugees.[20]
  • The creation of a democratic Palestinian state.[21]

Political Activity

  • The PLO (of which Al Fatah was the leading member organization), maintained political and diplomatic representation in the United Nations from 1969 to 2006.[22]
  • Yasser Arafat and Mahmoud Abbas each assumed the presidency of the PA while maintaining leadership over Al-Fatah, participating in diplomatic negotiations as head of state.
  • Fatah ran uncontested in the first Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) general elections of January 1996,[23] after Hamas boycotted in protest of the Oslo Accords.[24] In that election, Arafat was elected president of the Palestinian Authority, with 88 percent of the vote.[25]
  • Abbas was elected to succeed Arafat in January 2005, an election which Hamas also boycotted.[26]
  • Hamas participated in the January 2006 elections, winning a majority in the PLC. Abbas' refusal to accept the results deepened political divides between Gaza (Hamas' base) and the West Bank (Fatah's base) territories, resulting in an inability to establish a quorum in the PLC.[27]
  • Fatah candidates have run in all local elections to date (2004-2005[28] and 2012[29]).

Financing

  • State sponsorship
    • Al-Fatah has received significant fiscal support from Arab countries in support of Palestinian refugees, including: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Persian Gulf states. These sources diminished after the 1990-1991 Gulf Crisis.[30]
    • The former Soviet Union provided weapons, explosives, and militant training.[31]
    • Egypt has been reported to have financed Al-Fatah missions.[32]
  • Charities/donations
    • Al-Fatah members have also been known to conduct fundraising campaigns in Arab cities.[33]

Leadership and Structure over Time

  • Single leader/Governing Council
    • The highest ruling body is the General Conference or Congress, though it is only occasionally called upon and will discuss the actions and progressions of the Central Committee.[34]
    • The Central Committee has 23 members that are elected by its members and is the collective leader for all Al-Fatah activities.[35] The Central Committee then votes into power a Secretary of the Central Committee, a deputy secretary, and a deputy leader, who runs the meetings of the Central Committee.[36]
    • Below the Central Committee is the Revolutionary Committee, which focuses mostly on decision-making and the possibility of armed resistance as a means of solutions.[37] The Revolutionary Committee has around 50 participants.[38]
    • The Revolutionary Committee creates sub-committees like that of the Membership Control and Protection Committee, Financial Control Committee, and the Mobilization and Organization Committee.[39]
    • Al-Fatah also has geographically organized group, with districts, which then are broken down into cells, wings, and branches.[40] Within each district are leading committees that are responsible to the Al-Fatah’s General Mobilization and Organization Commission.[41]
    • Military actions are governed through Fatah’s General Command or Al-Asifah Forces.[42]
  • Schisms on ideology and Al-Fatah’s political approach have emerged between older and younger members. These disputes were so heated that the new/young guard registered their own list of candidates for the PLC elections in 2006.[43] However, the new/young guard candidacy list was eliminated by the end of December when the schism was mended.[44]
  • 1956-2004: Yasser Arafat, Al-Fatah’s creator, elected chairman of PLO, and President of PA. Arafat was in power until his death in 2004.[45]
  • 2005-Present: Mahmoud Abbas (also known as Abu Mazen) assumed all of Arafat’s previous leadership roles.[46]

Strength

  • 1967: Approximately 500.[47]
  • 1968: 15,000.[48]
  • 1970: 20,000.[49]
  • 1992: 6,000-8,000.[50]
  • 2008: 10,000.[51]

Allies and Suspected Allies

  • Hamas (ally)
    • Although the two groups have experienced violent clashes and disputes over leadership in Palestine they have also collaborated at points.
    • With Hamas’ majority win in the PLC, Al-Fatah and Hamas originally tried to coexist by creating a unity government with Abbas as the leader.[52]
    • During April 2014, Hamas and Fatah officially reached a peace agreement that ended their rivalry and disputes.[53]
    • The two agreed to create a unity government and planned to hold general elections in December 2014.[54] However, elections were postponed and, as of September 2015, have not been held.[55]
  • Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (ally)
    • Fatah and DFLP have worked together several times on initiatives in the PLO and in coordinated attacks.[56]
  • The U.S. (ally)
    • Since Hamas has been deemed a foreign terrorist organization, Al-Fatah received substantial U.S. support in routing Hamas in Gaza in 2006-2007.[57]
    • Al-Fatah’s presidential guard was given $86 million to expand its troops from 3,700 to 4,700.[58]
    • In order to try and assist Al-Fatah in regaining control of Gaza, the U.S. channeled arms and vehicles to Al-Fatah PA forces.[59]
    • Israel and the U.S. also see the PA and Al-Fatah as key allies in creating a long-lasting peace settlement between the Palestinians and Israel—refusing to recognize Hamas.[60]

Rivals and Enemies

  • Hamas (rival)
    • The political success of Hamas in 2006 spurred a strong rivalry between Hamas and Al-Fatah.[61]
    • A success for Hamas represented a major loss for Fatah; Hamas members represented 76 of the 132 legislative seats, with Fatah winning only 43 spots.[62]
    • During June 2007, violence broke out between the two resulting Hamas’ taking over Gaza.[63]
    • Hamas has established power in Gaza while Fatah remains powerful with the PA in the West Bank—thus creating two separate governments, one led by Hamas in Gaza, and one led by Fatah in the West Bank.[64]
    • Abbas was quick to dissolve the unity government by removing the Hamas-led cabinet and Hamas prime minister, Ismail Haniyeh.[65]
    • There have been two other failed peace agreements in Cairo and Doha.[66]
  • Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) (rival)
    • The groups compete for influence and support amongst Palestinians with the PIJ advocating for Islamic rule and Fatah representing a secular approach.[67]
  • Israel (enemy)
    • Until the Oslo Accords in 1993, Al-Fatah also viewed Israel as an enemy and major obstacle in creating a Palestinian state.
    • Al-Fatah conducted extensive guerrilla attacks against Israel in the hopes of lessening and undermining its control.[68]

Counterterrorism Efforts

  • Domestic Military:
    • Israeli military troops have been strong forces against Al-Fatah during both the first and second intifada.
    • The second intifada saw severe damage inflicted upon Fatah-led PA security forces that were established in the Oslo Accords.[69]
    • Israeli helicopters led armed strikes over Al-Fatah headquarters and other Al-Fatah dominated areas.[70]
    • Arafat’s base in Ramallah was destroyed.[71]
    • Abbas himself has also worked at lessening armed Palestinian resistance by co-opting militants into joining PA Security Services.[72]
  • Foreign Political:
    • Over the years there have been many diplomatic attempts to bring peace to the region; these have included leaders from the US and UK.
    • In order to quell terrorism and support Al-Fatah’s leader, Abbas, President Bush met with him at the White House in October 2005.
    • The U.S. channeled money to increase Al-Fatah led PA security forces.[73]

United States Government Designations

None

Other Governments’ Designations

None

 

[1] BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.

[2] “Fatah,” Jane’s World Insurgency and Terrorism. May 10, 2013.

[3] Pina, Aaroon D. 2006. Fatah and Hamas: The New Palestinian Factional Reality. RS22395. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RS22395.pdf; BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.

[4] BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.; Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[5] Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[6] Hudson, Michael. 1969. “The Palestinian Arab Resistance Movement: Its Significance in the Middle East Crisis.” Middle East Journal 23 (3): 291–307. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4324473.; Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[7] BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.

[8] BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.

[9]“Terrorism Havens: Palestinian Authority”, Council on Foreign Relations, 1 December 2005, http://www.cfr.org/palestine/terrorism-havens-palestinian-authority/p9515; Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[10] Zuhur, Sherifa D. 2008. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=894.

[11] Zuhur, Sherifa D. 2008. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=894.

[12] Danin, Robert M. 2014. “The Fatah-Hamas Gaza Palestinian Unity Agreement.” Middle East Matters. April 23. http://blogs.cfr.org/danin/2014/04/23/the-fatah-hamas-gaza-palestinian-unity-agreement/.

[13] Aburish, Saïd K. 1999. Arafat: From Defender to Dictator. A&C Black.

[14] BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.

[15] Klein, Menachem. 2003. “By Conviction, Not by Infliction: The Internal Debate over Reforming the Palestinian Authority.” Middle East Journal 57 (2): 194–212. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4329877.

[16] Klein, Menachem. 2003. “By Conviction, Not by Infliction: The Internal Debate over Reforming the Palestinian Authority.” Middle East Journal 57 (2): 194–212. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4329877.

[17] “Fatah,” Jane’s World Insurgency and Terrorism. May 10, 2013.

[18] Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[19]PNLM/Fatah. 2009. “Palestine National Liberation Movement / Fatah: Internal Charter.” Federation of American Scientists. http://fas.org/irp/dni/osc/fatah-charter.pdf.

[20]Fareed, Mohsen Mohamed Abubaker. 1973. “Al Fatah The Palestine National Liberation Movement.” Thesis, Emporia, KS: Emporia State University. https://esirc.emporia.edu/bitstream/handle/123456789/2579/Fareed%201973.pdf.

[21] BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.

[22] Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[23] Klein, Menachem. 2003. “By Conviction, Not by Infliction: The Internal Debate over Reforming the Palestinian Authority.” Middle East Journal 57 (2): 194–212. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4329877.

[24] Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[25] Central Elections Commission. 1996. “The 1996 Presidential and Legislative Elections.” Central Elections Commission - Palestine. https://www.elections.ps/Portals/0/pdf/Resultselection1996.pdf.

[26] Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[27] Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[28] Central Elections Commission. 2005. “Local Elections (Round Four): Successful Lists by Local Authority and No. of Votes Obtained.” Central Elections Commission - Palestine. https://www.elections.ps/Portals/0/pdf/resultsFourth.pdf.

[29] Central Elections Commission. 2012. “Local Elections 2012: Final Results.” Central Elections Commission - Palestine. https://www.elections.ps/Portals/0/pdf/LE2012/LE2012_FinalResults_EN.pdf.

[30] US Department of State. 1993. “Appendix B: Background Information on Terrorist Groups.” Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1992. April 30. http://fas.org/irp/threat/terror_92/backg.html.

[31] US Department of State. 1993. “Appendix B: Background Information on Terrorist Groups.” Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1992. April 30. http://fas.org/irp/threat/terror_92/backg.html.

[31]Hudson, Michael. 1969. “The Palestinian Arab Resistance Movement: Its Significance in the Middle East Crisis.” Middle East Journal 23 (3): 291–307. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4324473.

[33] Fareed, Mohsen Mohamed Abubaker. 1973. “Al Fatah The Palestine National Liberation Movement.” Thesis, Emporia, KS: Emporia State University. https://esirc.emporia.edu/bitstream/handle/123456789/2579/Fareed%201973.pdf.

[34] Fareed, Mohsen Mohamed Abubaker. 1973. “Al Fatah The Palestine National Liberation Movement.” Thesis, Emporia, KS: Emporia State University. https://esirc.emporia.edu/bitstream/handle/123456789/2579/Fareed%201973.pdf; PNLM/Fatah. 2009. “Palestine National Liberation Movement / Fatah: Internal Charter.” Federation of American Scientists. http://fas.org/irp/dni/osc/fatah-charter.pdf.

[35] Pina, Aaroon D. 2006. Fatah and Hamas: The New Palestinian Factional Reality. RS22395. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RS22395.pdf; PNLM/Fatah. 2009. “Palestine National Liberation Movement / Fatah: Internal Charter.” Federation of American Scientists. http://fas.org/irp/dni/osc/fatah-charter.pdf.

[36] PNLM/Fatah. 2009. “Palestine National Liberation Movement / Fatah: Internal Charter.” Federation of American Scientists. http://fas.org/irp/dni/osc/fatah-charter.pdf.

[37] Pina, Aaroon D. 2006. Fatah and Hamas: The New Palestinian Factional Reality. RS22395. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RS22395.pdf.

[38]Fareed, Mohsen Mohamed Abubaker. 1973. “Al Fatah The Palestine National Liberation Movement.” Thesis, Emporia, KS: Emporia State University. https://esirc.emporia.edu/bitstream/handle/123456789/2579/Fareed%201973.pdf.

[39] PNLM/Fatah. 2009. “Palestine National Liberation Movement / Fatah: Internal Charter.” Federation of American Scientists. http://fas.org/irp/dni/osc/fatah-charter.pdf.

[40] PNLM/Fatah. 2009. “Palestine National Liberation Movement / Fatah: Internal Charter.” Federation of American Scientists. http://fas.org/irp/dni/osc/fatah-charter.pdf.

[41] PNLM/Fatah. 2009. “Palestine National Liberation Movement / Fatah: Internal Charter.” Federation of American Scientists. http://fas.org/irp/dni/osc/fatah-charter.pdf.

[42]Fareed, Mohsen Mohamed Abubaker. 1973. “Al Fatah The Palestine National Liberation Movement.” Thesis, Emporia, KS: Emporia State University. https://esirc.emporia.edu/bitstream/handle/123456789/2579/Fareed%201973.pdf.

[43] BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.

[44] BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.

[45] Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[46] CFR. 2005. “Terrorism Havens: Palestinian Authority.” Council on Foreign Relations. December 1. http://www.cfr.org/palestine/terrorism-havens-palestinian-authority/p9515.

[47] Fareed, Mohsen Mohamed Abubaker. 1973. “Al Fatah The Palestine National Liberation Movement.” Thesis, Emporia, KS: Emporia State University. https://esirc.emporia.edu/bitstream/handle/123456789/2579/Fareed%201973.pdf.

[48] Hudson, Michael. 1969. “The Palestinian Arab Resistance Movement: Its Significance in the Middle East Crisis.” Middle East Journal 23 (3): 291–307. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4324473.

[49] Fareed, Mohsen Mohamed Abubaker. 1973. “Al Fatah The Palestine National Liberation Movement.” Thesis, Emporia, KS: Emporia State University. https://esirc.emporia.edu/bitstream/handle/123456789/2579/Fareed%201973.pdf.

[50] US Department of State. 1993. “Appendix B: Background Information on Terrorist Groups.” Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1992. April 30. http://fas.org/irp/threat/terror_92/backg.html.

[51] BBC. 2008. “Palestinian Fatah’s Congress ‘unlikely’ to Be Held, Leader Says.” BBC News. December 14.

[52] Zuhur, Sherifa D. 2008. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=894.

[53] Danin, Robert M. 2014. “The Fatah-Hamas Gaza Palestinian Unity Agreement.” Middle East Matters. April 23. http://blogs.cfr.org/danin/2014/04/23/the-fatah-hamas-gaza-palestinian-unity-agreement/.

[54] Danin, Robert M. 2014. “The Fatah-Hamas Gaza Palestinian Unity Agreement.” Middle East Matters. April 23. http://blogs.cfr.org/danin/2014/04/23/the-fatah-hamas-gaza-palestinian-unity-agreement/.

[55]“Only 16 Percent of Palestinians Support Abbas: Poll.” 2015. Al-Bawaba. September 3. http://www.albawaba.com/news/only-16-percent-palestinians-support-abbas-poll-738796.

[56] Sloan, Stephen, and Sean K. Anderson. Historical dictionary of terrorism. Scarecrow Press, 2009, pg 142-145

[57] Zuhur, Sherifa D. 2008. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=894.

[58] Zuhur, Sherifa D. 2008. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=894.

[59] Malka, Haim. Middle East Noes and Commentary: Déjà Vu Diplomacy, Center for Strategic and International Studies, May 2007, http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/0507_menc.pdf.

[60] Zuhur, Sherifa. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics, Strategic Studies Institute, December 2008, http://fas.org/man/eprint/zuhur.pdf.

[61] Zuhur, Sherifa D. 2008. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=894.

[62] Cordesman, Anthony H. “The ‘Gaza War’ A Strategic Analysis”, Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2 February 2009, http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/090202_gaza_war.pdf.

[63] Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[64] Zuhur, Sherifa D. 2008. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=894.

[65] Zuhur, Sherifa D. 2008. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=894.

[66] Danin, Robert M. 2014. “The Fatah-Hamas Gaza Palestinian Unity Agreement.” Middle East Matters. April 23. http://blogs.cfr.org/danin/2014/04/23/the-fatah-hamas-gaza-palestinian-unity-agreement/.

[67] Karin Laub, “Arafat dilemma as militants gain hold,” The Advertiser, October 12, 2001.

[68] Zanotti, Jim. 2010. Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R41514. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf.

[69] CFR. 2003. “Middle East: Terrorism.” Council on Foreign Relations. June 12. http://www.cfr.org/middle-east-and-north-africa/middle-east-terrorism/p7832.

[70] Cordesman, Anthony H. 2009. The “Gaza War”: A Strategic Analysis. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/publication/gaza-war.

[71] BBC. 2009. “Profile: Fatah Palestinian Movement.” BBC News. August 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1371998.stm.

[72] CFR. 2005. “Terrorism Havens: Palestinian Authority.” Council on Foreign Relations. December 1. http://www.cfr.org/palestine/terrorism-havens-palestinian-authority/p9515.

[73] CFR. 2005. “Terrorism Havens: Palestinian Authority.” Council on Foreign Relations. December 1. http://www.cfr.org/palestine/terrorism-havens-palestinian-authority/p9515.