A Department of Homeland Security Emeritus Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

Al-Qa'ida in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQLIM) Narrative


Al-Qa’ida in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQLIM)

Last Update

March 2015

Aliases

al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb; Al-Qaeda Committee in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM); Al-Qa’ida Organization is the Islamic Maghreb; Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat; Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC)

History

Al-Qa’ida in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQLIM) is an Islamist militant group based in Algeria, currently under the leadership of Abdelmalek Droukdel.[1] The group mainly operates in the Sahel-Saharan region of Africa.[2] AQLIM has its roots in the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC),[3] which originated as an offshoot of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) in 1998 during the civil violence in Algeria.[4] In 2000, GSPC publicly announced it was opposed to GIA’s violence against civilians, claiming it harmed the general population,[5],[6] which gained the group some local popularity.[7] This lasted until early 2001, when GSPC returned to indiscriminate violence.[8] Over time, the group shifted focus from toppling Algeria's secular government to global jihad, officially aligning with al-Qa’ida in 2006 and renaming itself al-Qa’ida in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb in early 2007.[9],[10]

In 2007, AQLIM claimed responsibility for the bombing of the United Nations headquarters in Algiers.[11] AQLIM conducted numerous kidnappings for ransom and a series of bombings targeting police, citizens, and the military in Algeria and surrounding regions.[12] In 2012, an intensified counterterrorism campaign by the Algerian government forced the group to reduce its bombing attacks and focus primarily on obtaining funding through smuggling and kidnappings.[13] At this time, AQLIM also moved to surrounding regions, specifically Niger and Mali.[14] AQLIM has been tied to other Islamist groups: Boko Haram, al-Shabaab, Ansar Dine, and the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO).[15] These groups took advantage of secular unrest in Mali to seize major parts of northern and central Mali during 2012 and 2013,[16] though they were largely pushed from populated areas by French intervention in February 2013.[17]

Internal differences within AQLIM have spawned multiple jihadist groups throughout the region. MUJAO was created in October 2011 as a Malian faction.[18] In December 2012, AQLIM military commander Mokhtar Belmokhtar announced the formation of “The Signers in Blood” Battalion.[19] In September 2014, several leaders of AQLIM broke off from AQLIM to form a new militant group known as “The Caliphate Soldiers” which pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS).[20]

Home Base

Algeria

Founding Year

1998 (GSPC), 2007 (change to AQLIM)[21]

Ideology

Religious-Islamist-Salafist-Jihadist.[22]

Specific Goals

  • Toppling of existing governments in the Sahara and Sahel[23]
  • Establishment of Sharia-based regimes in the Sahara and Sahel[24]
  • Removal of Western influence from the Sahara and Sahel.[25]

Political Activity

None.

Financing

  • Kidnap-for ransom [26]
  • Trafficking/smuggling ( narcotics, arms, cigarettes) [27]

Leadership and Structure over Time

  • The group is divided into semi-autonomous brigades known as katibas,[28] which have been known to compete with one another. [29]
  • 1998-2003 (GSPC): Hassan Hattab[30]
  • 2003-2004 (GSPC): Nabil Sahraoui[31]
  • 2004-present: Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud (aka Abdelmalek Droukdel).[32]

Strength

  • 2000: unknown, "probably several hundred to several thousand"[33]
  • 2001: 500[34]
  • 2002: unknown, "probably several hundred"[35]
  • 2003: 4,000[36]
  • 2004: several hundred[37]
  • 2005: several hundred[38]
  • 2006: several hundred in Algeria[39]
  • 2007: several hundred in Algeria and the Sahel[40]
  • 2008: several hundred in Algeria, smaller numbers in the Sahel[41]
  • 2009: Less than 1,000[42]
  • 2010: Less than 1,000[43]
  • 2011: Less than 1,000[44]
  • 2012: 300[45]
  • 2013: 600-800[46]

Allies and Suspected Allies

  • Al-Qa’ida (ally)[47]
    • GSPC officially aligned with al-Qa’ida in 2006, changing its name to al-Qa’ida in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb in early 2007[48]
  • Boko Haram (ally)[49]
    • Boko Haram members trained in AQLIM camps in the desert areas of Mali and Niger as early as 2007[50]
    • In 2012, forces from AQLIM, MUJAO and Boko Haram seized parts of Mali,[51] with evidence of shared funding, training and explosives.[52]
  • Ansar Dine (ally)[53]
    • In November 2012, AQLIM, Ansar Dine, and MUAJO formed an official alliance, attacking provinces in central Mali in 2013.[54]
  • Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO) (ally)[55]
    • In 2012, forces from AQLIM, MUJAO and Boko Haram seized parts of Mali,[56] with evidence of shared funding, training and explosives.[57]
    • In November 2012, AQLIM, Ansar Dine, and MUAJO formed an official alliance, attacking provinces in central Mali in 2013.[58]
    • As of November 2014, MUJAO was believed to be receiving operational support from AQLIM.[59]
  • Al-Shabaab (ally)
    • According to the U.S. government, Al-Shabaab and AQLIM started to coordinate activities in 2012.[60]
  • Al-Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) (ally)
    • AQAP leader al-Wuhayshi corresponded with AQLIM leader Abdelmalek Droukdel, offering advice on how to establish an effective emirate.[61]

Rivals and Enemies

  • Algeria  (target, enemy)
    • AQLIM has violently fought against the Algerian government since its founding. They continue to launch attacks against government building, military and police personnel, and the general public.[62]
  • Mauritania (target)
    • AQLIM began operating in Mauritania as early as 2008 when militants abducted and decapitated 12 Mauritanian soldiers.[63] This attack represented the spreading of AQLIM’s objectives and capacity to carry out attacks beyond Algeria and through other countries in North and West Africa.[64]
  • Niger (target)
    • AQLIM’s goal on overthrowing regimes, expelling foreign influence, and establishing Islamic rule in the Sahara and Sahel encompasses Niger. In 2008 AQIM began working toward this end by abducting tourists and foreign diplomatic representatives, including the United Nations Special Envoy. [65]
  • Mali (target, enemy)
    • Weaknesses and fracturing in the governmental and security situation in Mali in 2011 and 2012 provided an opportunity for AQLIM to exert their influence and gain territory in early 2012.[66] Through coalitions with local insurgencies, AQLIM was able to gain a considerable foothold and consolidate power in northern Mali before getting flushed out by joint African Union and French forces in early 2013.[67]
  • France (target, enemy)
    • AQLIM opposes French involvement in Mali and in 2011 abducted eight French citizens in retaliation.[68]

Counterterrorism Efforts

  • International Law Enforcement:
    • In 2011, the European Union sent police and security experts to Mauritania and Mali to strengthen local responses to AQLIM.[69]
    • In 2013, the U.S. State Department offered substantial awards for information on the whereabouts of AQLIM leaders.[70]
  • International Military:
    • From 2005 to 2011, the United States provided counterterrorism training (Operation Enduring Freedom-TransSahara, aka OEF-TS) and non-weapon military equipment (e.g., radios, vehicles) to the governments of Mali, Niger, Mauritania, Chad, Senegal, and Nigeria.[71]
    • In July 2010, Mali announced "Special Program for Peace, Security, and Development in Northern Mali" (with EU and French financial support), a two-year plan to establish 11 “secure zones for development and governance” in northern Mali, manned by 3,000 military and development officials.[72]
    • In 2011, the Canadian government sent a contingent of special forces to Mali to offer military and counter-terrorism training.[73]
    • As of December 2013, the French government had troops deployed in Mali to combat AQLIM and other Islamist organizations.[74]

United States Government Designations

  • Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO), March 27, 2002.[75]

Other Governments’ Designations

  • Canada (July 2002): listed terrorist entity[76]
  • Russia (November 2008): international terrorist organization[77]
  • United Kingdom (March 2001): banned terrorist organization[78]
 

[1] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[2] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[3] Thornberry, William, and Jaclyn Levy. 2011. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Case Study 4. Homeland Security & Counterterrorism Program: Transnational Threats Project. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/publication/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb.

[4] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717; Thornberry, William, and Jaclyn Levy. 2011. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Case Study 4. Homeland Security & Counterterrorism Program: Transnational Threats Project. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/publication/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb.

[5] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[6] US Department of State. 2001. Country Reports on Terrorism 2000. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2000/.

[7] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[8] US Department of State. 2002. Country Reports on Terrorism 2001. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/10319.pdf.

[9] Thornberry, William, and Jaclyn Levy. 2011. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Case Study 4. Homeland Security & Counterterrorism Program: Transnational Threats Project. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/publication/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb.

[10] BBC. 2013. “Profile: Al-Qaeda in North Africa.” BBC News. January 17. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17308138.

[11] Thornberry, William, and Jaclyn Levy. 2011. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Case Study 4. Homeland Security & Counterterrorism Program: Transnational Threats Project. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/publication/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb.

[12] National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). 2013. “Global Terrorism Database [Data File].” http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd.

[13] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[14] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[15] Zenn, Jacob. 2013. “Boko Haram’s International Connections.” CTC Sentinel, CTC Sentinel, 6 (1): 7–13. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections.Zenn, Jacob. “Boko Haram’s International Connections” Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. January 14, 2013, accessed October 8, 2014, https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections

[16] Zenn, Jacob. 2013. “Boko Haram’s International Connections.” CTC Sentinel, CTC Sentinel, 6 (1): 7–13. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections.

[17] Francis, David J. 2013. “The Regional Impact of the Armed Conflict and French Intervention in Mali.” NOREF: Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre. April 9. http://www.peacebuilding.no/Regions/Africa/Mali/Publications/The-regional-impact-of-the-armed-conflict-and-French-intervention-in-Mali.

[18] Zenn, Jacob. 2013. “Boko Haram’s International Connections.” CTC Sentinel, CTC Sentinel, 6 (1): 7–13. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections; UN Security Council. 2014. “Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities.” September 9. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE13412E.shtml.

[19]Dreazen, Yochi. 2013. “The New Terrorist Training Ground.” The Atlantic, October. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/10/the-new-terrorist-training-ground/309446/.

[20] Reuters Africa, “Splinter group breaks from al Qaeda in North Africa”, September 14, 2014, accessed October 8, 2014, http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFL6N0RF0F020140914

[21] BBC. 2013. “Profile: Al-Qaeda in North Africa.” BBC News. January 17. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17308138; Thornberry, William, and Jaclyn Levy. 2011. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Case Study 4. Homeland Security & Counterterrorism Program: Transnational Threats Project. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/publication/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb.

[22] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[23] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[24] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[25] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[26] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[27] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[28] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[29] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[30] Tawil, Camille. 2009. “New Strategies in Al-Qaeda’s Battle for Algeria.” Terrorism Monitor, July 27. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=35325&no_cache=1.

[31] US Department of State. 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf.

[32] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717.

[33] US Department of State. 2001. Country Reports on Terrorism 2000. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2000/.

[34] The Military Balance. 2003. “Table: Selected Non-State Armed Groups.” In The Military Balance 2002, 224–31. The Military Balance.

[35] US Department of State. 2003. Country Reports on Terrorism 2002. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/20177.pdf.

[36] The Military Balance. 2004. “Table: Selected Non-State Armed Groups.” In The Military Balance 2004, 362–77. The Military Balance. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/725292356.

[37] US Department of State. 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf.

[38] US Department of State. 2006. Country Reports on Terrorism 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/65462.pdf.

[39] US Department of State. 2007. Country Reports on Terrorism 2006. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/83383.pdf.

[40] US Department of State. 2008. Country Reports on Terrorism 2007. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/105904.pdf.

[41] US Department of State. 2009. Country Reports on Terrorism 2008. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/122599.pdf.

[42] US Department of State. 2010. Country Reports on Terrorism 2009. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/141114.pdf.

[43] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2010, Terrorist Organizations, August 18, 2011, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2010/170264.htm

[44] US Department of State. 2012. Country Reports on Terrorism 2011. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/195768.pdf.

[45] The Military Balance. 2012. “Chapter Eleven: Non-State Groups and Affiliates.” In The Military Balance 2012, 477–84. The Military Balance. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/04597222.2012.663221.

[46] BBC. 2013. “Profile: Al-Qaeda in North Africa.” BBC News. January 17. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17308138.

[47] Sidibé, Kalilou. 2012. “Security Management in Northern Mali: Criminal Networks and Conflict Resolution Mechanisms.” IDS: Institute of Development Studies. August 14. http://www.ids.ac.uk/publication/security-management-in-northern-mali-criminal-networks-and-conflict-resolution-mechanisms.

[48] BBC. 2013. “Profile: Al-Qaeda in North Africa.” BBC News. January 17. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17308138; Thornberry, William, and Jaclyn Levy. 2011. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Case Study 4. Homeland Security & Counterterrorism Program: Transnational Threats Project. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/publication/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb.

[49] The Military Balance. 2014. “Chapter Nine: Sub-Saharan Africa.” In The Military Balance 2014, 411–70. The Military Balance. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/04597222.2014.871886.

[50] Zenn, Jacob. 2013. “Boko Haram’s International Connections.” CTC Sentinel, CTC Sentinel, 6 (1): 7–13. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections.

[51] Zenn, Jacob. 2013. “Boko Haram’s International Connections.” CTC Sentinel, CTC Sentinel, 6 (1): 7–13. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections.

[52] Lerman, David. 2012. “African Terrorist Groups Starting to Cooperate.” Bloomberg.com. June 25. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-06-25/african-terrorist-groups-starting-to-cooperate-u-dot-s-dot-says.

[53] The Military Balance. 2013. “Chapter Nine: Sub-Saharan Africa.” In The Military Balance 2013, 477–542. The Military Balance. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/04597222.2013.757005.

[54] UN Security Council. 2014. “Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities.” September 9. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE13412E.shtml; Zenn, Jacob. 2013. “Boko Haram’s International Connections.” CTC Sentinel, CTC Sentinel, 6 (1): 7–13. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections.

[55] The Military Balance. 2013. “Chapter Nine: Sub-Saharan Africa.” In The Military Balance 2013, 477–542. The Military Balance. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/04597222.2013.757005.Military Balance

[56] Zenn, Jacob. 2013. “Boko Haram’s International Connections.” CTC Sentinel, CTC Sentinel, 6 (1): 7–13. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections.

[57] Lerman, David. 2012. “African Terrorist Groups Starting to Cooperate.” Bloomberg.com. June 25. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-06-25/african-terrorist-groups-starting-to-cooperate-u-dot-s-dot-says.

[58] UN Security Council. 2014. “Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities.” September 9. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE13412E.shtml; Zenn, Jacob. 2013. “Boko Haram’s International Connections.” CTC Sentinel, CTC Sentinel, 6 (1): 7–13. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections.

[59] UN Security Council. 2014. “Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities.” September 9. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE13412E.shtml; Zenn, Jacob. 2013. “Boko Haram’s International Connections.” CTC Sentinel, CTC Sentinel, 6 (1): 7–13. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/boko-harams-international-connections.

[60] Lerman, David. 2012. “African Terrorist Groups Starting to Cooperate.” Bloomberg.com. June 25. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-06-25/african-terrorist-groups-starting-to-cooperate-u-dot-s-dot-says.

[61] Zimmerman, Katherine L. 2013. Testimony: AQAP’s Role in the Al Qaeda Network. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute. http://www.criticalthreats.org/sites/default/files/pdf_upload/analysis/Zimmerman_AQAPs_Role_in_the_al_Qaeda_Network_September_2013.pdf.

[62] US Department of State. 2014. Country Reports on Terrorism 2013. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/225886.pdf; National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). (2015). Global Terrorism Database [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd

[63] National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). (2015). Global Terrorism Database [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd

[64] Tawil, Camille. 2009. “New Strategies in Al-Qaeda’s Battle for Algeria.” TerrorismMonitor, July 27. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=35325&no_cache=1; National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). (2015). Global Terrorism Database [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd

[65] National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). (2015). Global Terrorism Database [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd

[66] US Department of State. 2014. Country Reports on Terrorism 2013. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/225886.pdf.; Tlemcani, Salima. 2010. “Sahel-Sahara Military Committee ‘More Formal than Active’ Algerian Paper.” BBC Monitoring Middle East. via LexisNexis; Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717

[67] Laub, Zachary, and Jonathan Masters. 2014. “Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).” Council on Foreign Relations. January 8. http://www.cfr.org/terrorist-organizations-and-networks/al-qaeda-islamic-maghreb-aqim/p12717

[68] Corera, Gordon. 2013. “Islamists Pose Threat to French Interests in Africa.” BBC News. January 14. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-21018675.

[70] Myers, Steven Lee. 2013. “State Department Offers Rewards for Terrorist Leaders.” New York Times, June 3. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/04/world/africa/state-department-offers-rewards-for-terrorist-leaders.html.

[71] Larémont, Ricardo René. 2011. “Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb: Terrorism and Counterterrorism in the Sahel.” African Security 4 (4): 242–68. doi:10.1080/19392206.2011.628630.

[72] Larémont, Ricardo René. 2011. “Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb: Terrorism and Counterterrorism in the Sahel.” African Security 4 (4): 242–68. doi:10.1080/19392206.2011.628630.

[73] Pugliese, David. 2011. “Canada Sends Special Forces to Aid African Al-Qaeda Fight.” The Calgary Herald, December 3, Final edition, sec. News. via LexisNexis.

[74] Reuters. "Mali: French Troops Battle Islamists." New York Times (New York City ), December 10, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/11/world/africa/mali-french-troops-battle-islamists.html (accessed April 22, 2014).

[75] US Department of State. 2009. “Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” Other Release. US Department of State. May 8. http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm.

[76] Public Safety Canada. 2014. “Currently Listed Entities.” Listed Terrorist Entities. March 4. http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/cntr-trrrsm/lstd-ntts/crrnt-lstd-ntts-eng.aspx.

[77] “Single Federal List of Organizations Recognized as Terrorist by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.” 2014. National Anti-Terrorist Committee (NAC). Accessed April 22. http://nac.gov.ru/document/832/edinyi-federalnyi-spisok-organizatsii-priznannykh-terroristicheskimi-verkhovnym-sudom-r.html.

[78] Birmingham Evening Mail. 2001. “Straw Bans Terrorist Groups.” Birmingham Evening Mail, March 29.