A Department of Homeland Security Emeritus Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

Ansar Al-Islam Narrative


Ansar Al-Islam

Last Update

April 2015

Aliases

Supporters of Islam; Ansar al-Sunna Army; Devotees of Islam; Followers of Islam in Kurdistan; Helpers of Islam; Jaish Ansar al-Sunna; Jund al-Islam; Kurdish Taliban; Kurdistan Supporters of Islam; Partisans of Islam; Soldiers of God; Soldiers of Islam; Supporters of Islam in Kurdistan.[1]

History

Ansar Al-Islam was founded in 2001 when the Kurdish militant group, the Islamic Movement of Kurdistan (IMK), splintered.[2] The IMK splintered into various factions, with two jihadist breakaway groups forming Jund Al-Islam, or Soldiers of Islam, on September 1, 2001.[3] On December 10, 2001, Jund Al-Islam renamed itself Ansar Al-Islam, with Mullah Krekar, the founder and leader, receiving al-Qa’ida seed money to establish the group.[4] Initially, Ansar Al-Islam was largely comprised of Arab al-Qa’ida fighters seeking refuge after the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan during the fall of 2001.[5] Ansar Al-Islam continued to grow by gaining followers from other Kurdish Islamist groups.[6] Ansar Al-Islam originally began in Biyara, a township located between Iraqi Kurdistan and Iran; however, it is active throughout the mountainous northern region of Iraqi Kurdistan.[7]

Under its original leader Mullah Krekar, Ansar Al-Islam began practicing strict sharia law in areas under its control.[8] Ansar Al-Islam seeks to create an Islamic Iraq under sharia and does so by instigating violence against secular Kurdish groups, coalition organizations, western forces, Iraqi security forces, and the Iraqi government.[9] Ansar Al-Islam receives a large amount of fiscal support, armed operations training, and supplies from its ally, al-Qa’ida.[10] After September 11, 2001, Ansar Al-Islam was seen as a key ally to al-Qa’ida forces operating within Iraq and was arguably one reason for the U.S. invasion of Iraq.[11] In March 2003, U.S. Special Forces backed by fighters from the secular Patriotic Union of Kurdistan attacked a major Ansar Al-Islam enclave and killed many of its fighters, forcing the survivors to flee to either Iran or other places of safety within Iraq.[12] However, in November 2003, the surviving members of Ansar Al-Islam reunited and changed the name of the group to Ansar Al-Sunna in an attempt to reunite Iraqi-based extremists.[13] Then, in December 2007, Ansar Al-Sunna returned to its name of Ansar Al-Islam, although some jihadists still occasionally use the name Ansar Al-Sunna.[14] A longtime leader of Ansar Al-Islam, Abu Abdulla al-Shafi’i, was captured on May 4, 2010.[15] On December 15, 2011, Abu Hashim Muhammad bin Abdul Rahman al Ibrahim was declared the new leader of Ansar Al-Islam.[16] Ansar Al-Islam still remains Iraq’s second-most prominent group in anti-coalition attacks and the second largest Iraqi Sunni insurgent organization.[17]

Home Base

Iraq (northern Iraq)[18]

Founding Year

2001[19]

Ideology

Religious-Islamist-Sunni-Salafist-Jihadist.[20]

Specific Goals

  • Primary focus on expelling western influences in Iraq and establishing an independent Islamic Iraq under sharia.[21]
  • Undermine local authorities by targeting violent attacks on political parties, coalition forces, and government officials in order to expand their breadth of control.[22]

Political Activity

None.

Financing

  • Extortion: Institutes custom fees on all goods coming in and out of the areas of their control; these taxes then becoming a form of income for the group.[23]
  • Funded by other violent groups: Receives a large amount of fiscal support, militant training, technology, and supplies from al-Qa’ida.[24]

Leadership and Structure over Time

  • Ansar Al-Islam is composed of eight armed battalions with the Al-Muharjirin Battalion, which is comprised mainly of Arab fighters, as the most powerful in the leadership chain.[25]
  • Arab fighters, who fled during the Afghan War and arrived in Iraq via Iran, made up most of the initial members of Ansar Al-Islam and subsequently recruited other Kurdish Islamist groups that opposed the Iraqi regime.
  • Disputes have occurred due to organizational ranks and senior leadership issues within the battalions, as well as discrimination issues between ethnic Kurds and Arabs.[26]
  • 2001-2002: Faraj Ahmed Najmuddin (a.k.a. Mullah Krekar) established Ansar Al-Islam in December 2001.[27]
  • 2002-2010: Abu Abdallah al-Shafi’i became the main leader of Ansar al-Islam after Mullah Krekar was detained and imprisoned in Europe in 2002. He remained the group’s leader until his capture by U.S. forces in Baghdad on May 4, 2010. [28]
  • 2011-present: Abu Hashim Muhammad bin Abdul Rahman al Ibrahim was declared the new leader on December 15, 2011, and remains the group’s leader today.[29]

Strength

  • 2004: Approximately 500-1,000[30]
  • 2005: Approximately 500-1,000[31]
  • 2008: 500[32]

Allies and Suspected Allies

  • Al-Qa’ida (ally):
    • AQ is the strongest ally, funder, and supporter of Ansar Al-Islam.
    • Ansar Al-Islam militants have trained in Afghani al-Qa’ida camps and Ansar Al-Islam provides refuge for al-Qa’ida fighters escaping Afghanistan.[33]
    • Ansar Al-Islam has also claimed instances of working with al-Qa’ida in Iraq (which became the Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS)) and the Islamic Army in Iraq.[34]

Rivals and Enemies

  • Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (rival, violence between groups):
    • Multiple clashes and battles with PUK forces, as well as assassination attempts against PUK officials.[35]
  • Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) (rival):
    • In 2004, Ansar al-Islam claimed to have collaborated with Tawhid and Jihad (an early name for ISIL), although the nature and extent of these ties was unclear.[36]
    • By 2012, mutual attempts to assassinate the leaders of each group had raised tensions; ISIL leaders were said to oppose any rapprochement with Ansar al-Islam.[37]
    • In 2014, Ansar al-Islam was reportedly cooperating with Jabhat al-Nusra to oppose ISIL forces in Iraq and Syria.[38]
    • In January 2015, it was reported that Ansar al-Islam had a proposed "joint operations" with al-Qa'ida to attack ISIL in Iraq.[39]
  • United States (target):
    • Ansar al-Islam has targeted American forces within Iraq as well as coalition and peacekeeping forces with various weapons and tactics, including suicide bombings. [40]
    •  Suicide attack on a U.S. base in Mosul in 2004 killed 13 US soldiers.[41]
  • Iraq (target):
    • Ansar al-Islam frequently attacks Iraqi and international governmental officials, and other Iraqi political parties, particularly Kurds.[42] 
  • United Nations (target):
    • Ansar al-Islam bombed the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad in 2004.[43]

Counterterrorism Efforts

  • Domestic Military:
    • Iraqi forces, such as the PUK, lead local military counterterrorist efforts against the group.[44]
    • PUK launched a major offensive against Ansar al-Islam in March 2003 with the help of U.S. Special Forces.[45]
  • International Military:
    • Ansar Al-Islam was one of the first targets of U.S. forces in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[46]
    • U.S. Special Forces supported a PUK-led attack on a strong Ansar Al-Islam enclave in March 2003, ultimately killing Ansar Al-Islam fighters and causing the group to flee for a short period of time either out of the country or into the mountainous regions of Kurdistan.[47]
  • International Law Enforcement:
    • Former leader Mullah Krekar was arrested in the Netherlands in 2002 on suspicion of drug trafficking.[48] He was eventually deported to Norway in 2003, where he was rearrested in 2004.[49]
    • Ansar Al-Islam’s second leader, Abu Abdulla al-Shafi’i, was captured and imprisoned by U.S. forces in Baghdad on May 4, 2010.[50]  

United States Government Designations

  • Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO), March 22, 2004.[51]
  • Specially Designated Global Terrorist entity (SDGT).[52]

Other Governments’ Designations

  • Canada (July 2002): Foreign Terrorist Organization.[53]
  • Australia (March 2003): Listed Terrorist Organization.[54]
  • United Kingdom (October 2005): Proscribed Terrorist Organization.[55]
 

[1] US Department of State. 2009. Country Reports on Terrorism 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/122599.pdf; US Department of State. 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf.

[2] US Department of State. 2009. Country Reports on Terrorism 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/122599.pdf.

[3] Gibbons-Neff, Thomas. 2014. “ISIS: Not Alone in Their Conquest of Iraq.” The Washington Post, June 20. http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/06/19/isis-not-alone-in-their-conquest-of-iraq/; ICG. 2003. Radical Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan: The Mouse That Roared?. Amman, JOR: International Crisis Group. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?lang=en&id=27366.

[4] Gregory, Kathryn. 2008. “Ansar Al-Islam (Iraq, Islamists/Kurdish Separatists), Ansar Al-Sunnah.” Backgrounder. Council on Foreign Relations. November 5. http://www.cfr.org/iraq/ansar-al-islam-iraq-islamistskurdish-separatists-ansar-al-sunnah/p9237.

[5] BBC. 2008. “Al-Arabiya TV Discusses Iraqi Kurdistan Region-Based Insurgent Group.” Online News. BBC News. October 13. via LexisNexis;Chalk, Peter. 2013. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. California: ABC-CLIO.

[6] BBC. 2008. “Al-Arabiya TV Discusses Iraqi Kurdistan Region-Based Insurgent Group.” Online News. BBC News. October 13. via LexisNexis.

[7] Gregory, Kathryn. 2008. “Ansar Al-Islam (Iraq, Islamists/Kurdish Separatists), Ansar Al-Sunnah.” Backgrounder. Council on Foreign Relations. November 5. http://www.cfr.org/iraq/ansar-al-islam-iraq-islamistskurdish-separatists-ansar-al-sunnah/p9237; BBC. 2008. “Al-Arabiya TV Discusses Iraqi Kurdistan Region-Based Insurgent Group.” Online News. BBC News. October 13. via LexisNexis.

[8] Cordesman, Anthony H, and Sam Khazai. 2013. Violence in Iraq: The Growing Risk of Serious Civil Conflict. Burke Chair in Strategy. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/publication/130909_Violence_in_Iraq_Growing_Risks.pdf.

[9] Gregory, Kathryn. 2008. “Ansar Al-Islam (Iraq, Islamists/Kurdish Separatists), Ansar Al-Sunnah.” Backgrounder. Council on Foreign Relations. November 5. http://www.cfr.org/iraq/ansar-al-islam-iraq-islamistskurdish-separatists-ansar-al-sunnah/p9237; Cordesman, Anthony H. 2005. Terrorist and Extremist Movements in the Middle East: The Impact on the Regional Military Balance. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/050329_terrandextmvmts%5b1%5d.pdf; Chalk, Peter. 2013. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. California: ABC-CLIO.

[10] Muir, Jim. 2002. “‘Al-Qaeda’ Influence Grows in Iraq.” Online News. BBC News. July 24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2149499.stm.

[11] ICG. 2003. Radical Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan: The Mouse That Roared?. Amman, JOR: International Crisis Group. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?lang=en&id=27366;Schanzer, Jonathan. 2004. “Ansar Al-Islam: Back in Iraq.” Middle East Quarterly 11 (1): 41–50. http://www.meforum.org/579/ansar-al-islam-back-in-iraq.

[12] Chalk, Peter. 2013. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. California: ABC-CLIO.

[13] US Department of State. 2009. Country Reports on Terrorism 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/122599.pdf.

[14] US Department of State. 2009. Country Reports on Terrorism 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/122599.pdf; Roggio, Bill, and Thomas Joscelyn. 2012. “Ansar Al Islam Names New Leader.” A Project of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies. The Long War Journal. January 5. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2012/01/ansar_al_islam_names.php.

[15] US Department of State. 2013. Country Reports on Terrorism 2012. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[16] US Department of State. 2013. Country Reports on Terrorism 2012. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[17] US Department of State. 2009. Country Reports on Terrorism 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/122599.pdf.

[18] US Department of State. 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf.

[19] US Department of State. 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf.

[20] Gregory, Kathryn. 2008. “Ansar Al-Islam (Iraq, Islamists/Kurdish Separatists), Ansar Al-Sunnah.” Backgrounder. Council on Foreign Relations. November 5. http://www.cfr.org/iraq/ansar-al-islam-iraq-islamistskurdish-separatists-ansar-al-sunnah/p9237; Finer, Jonathan. 2006. “Iraq’s Insurgents: Who’s Who.” The Washington Post, March 19. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/03/17/AR2006031702087.html.

[21] Cordesman, Anthony H, and Sam Khazai. 2013. Violence in Iraq: The Growing Risk of Serious Civil Conflict. Burke Chair in Strategy. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/publication/130909_Violence_in_Iraq_Growing_Risks.pdf; CSIS. 2005. “Transnational Threats Update: Terrorism.” Transnational Threats Project: Center for Strategic and International Studies, February. https://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/ttu_0502.pdf.

[22] Cordesman, Anthony H. 2005. Terrorist and Extremist Movements in the Middle East: The Impact on the Regional Military Balance. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/050329_terrandextmvmts%5b1%5d.pdf; US Department of State. 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf; US Department of State. 2002. Annual Report on International Religious Freedom 2002. Report to the Committees on Foreign Relations. Washington, DC. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CPRT-107JPRT82501/pdf/CPRT-107JPRT82501.pdf.

[23] BBC. 2008. “Al-Arabiya TV Discusses Iraqi Kurdistan Region-Based Insurgent Group.” Online News. BBC News. October 13. via LexisNexis.

[24] Muir, Jim. 2002. “‘Al-Qaeda’ Influence Grows in Iraq.” Online News. BBC News. July 24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2149499.stm.

[25] BBC. 2008. “Al-Arabiya TV Discusses Iraqi Kurdistan Region-Based Insurgent Group.” Online News. BBC News. October 13. via LexisNexis.

[26] BBC. 2008. “Al-Arabiya TV Discusses Iraqi Kurdistan Region-Based Insurgent Group.” Online News. BBC News. October 13. via LexisNexis.

[27] Gregory, Kathryn. 2008. “Ansar Al-Islam (Iraq, Islamists/Kurdish Separatists), Ansar Al-Sunnah.” Backgrounder. Council on Foreign Relations. November 5. http://www.cfr.org/iraq/ansar-al-islam-iraq-islamistskurdish-separatists-ansar-al-sunnah/p9237.

[28] Gibbons-Neff, Thomas. 2014. “ISIS: Not Alone in Their Conquest of Iraq.” The Washington Post, June 20. http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/06/19/isis-not-alone-in-their-conquest-of-iraq/;

BBC. 2003. “Profile: Kurdish Islamist Movement.” BBC, January 13, sec. Media reports. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/not_in_website/syndication/monitoring/media_reports/2588623.stm.

[29] Cordesman, Anthony H, and Sam Khazai. 2013. Violence in Iraq: The Growing Risk of Serious Civil Conflict. Burke Chair in Strategy. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/publication/130909_Violence_in_Iraq_Growing_Risks.pdf.

[30] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2004, Chapter 6 – Terrorist Groups, April 27, 2005, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/45394.htm 

[31] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2005, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 28, 2006, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2005/65275.htm  

[32] “Non-State Armed Groups,” Military Balance 108 (2008): 461-482, doi: 10.1080/04597220801912960

[33] Cordesman, Anthony H, and Sam Khazai. 2013. Violence in Iraq: The Growing Risk of Serious Civil Conflict. Burke Chair in Strategy. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/publication/130909_Violence_in_Iraq_Growing_Risks.pdf; US Department of State. 2002. Annual Report on International Religious Freedom 2002. Report to the Committees on Foreign Relations. Washington, DC. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CPRT-107JPRT82501/pdf/CPRT-107JPRT82501.pdf.

[34] Cordesman, Anthony H. 2006. The Islamists and the “Zarqawi Factor.” Burke Chair in Strategy. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/060622_islamists_zarqawi.pdf.

[35] Cordesman, Anthony H. 2005. Terrorist and Extremist Movements in the Middle East: The Impact on the Regional Military Balance. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/050329_terrandextmvmts%5b1%5d.pdf.

[36] Cordesman, Anthony H. 2006. The Islamists and the “Zarqawi Factor.” Burke Chair in Strategy. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/060622_islamists_zarqawi.pdf.

[37] Ali, Abdallah Suleiman. 2014. “ISIS Prefers Allegiance, Not Allies, in Iraq.” Online News. Al-Monitor. June 17. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2014/06/iraq-syria-isis-policy-partners.html.

[38] Ali, Abdallah Suleiman. 2014. “ISIS on Offense in Iraq.” Online News. Al-Monitor. June 10. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2014/06/syria-iraq-isis-invasions-strength.html.

[39] Joscelyn, Thomas. 2015. “The Islamic State’s Curious Cover Story.” A Project of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies. The Long War Journal. January 5. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2015/01/al_qaeda_defector_fe.php.

[40]Katzman, Kenneth. 2008. Al Qaeda in Iraq: Assessment and Outside Links. CRS Report for Congress RL32217. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32217.pdf.

[41] Cordesman, Anthony H. 2005. Terrorist and Extremist Movements in the Middle East: The Impact on the Regional Military Balance. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/050329_terrandextmvmts%5b1%5d.pdf.; US Department of State. 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf; Muir, Jim. 2002. “‘Al-Qaeda’ Influence Grows in Iraq.” Online News. BBC News. July 24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2149499.stm; US Department of State. 2002. Annual Report on International Religious Freedom 2002. Report to the Committees on Foreign Relations. Washington, DC. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CPRT-107JPRT82501/pdf/CPRT-107JPRT82501.pdf.

[42] Cordesman, Anthony H. 2005. Terrorist and Extremist Movements in the Middle East: The Impact on the Regional Military Balance. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/050329_terrandextmvmts%5b1%5d.pdf; US Department of State. 2005. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf; Muir, Jim. 2002. “‘Al-Qaeda’ Influence Grows in Iraq.” Online News. BBC News. July 24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2149499.stm; US Department of State. 2002. Annual Report on International Religious Freedom 2002. Report to the Committees on Foreign Relations. Washington, DC. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CPRT-107JPRT82501/pdf/CPRT-107JPRT82501.pdf.

[43] Katzman, Kenneth. 2008. Al Qaeda in Iraq: Assessment and Outside Links. CRS Report for Congress RL32217. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32217.pdf; Gibbons-Neff, Thomas. 2014. “ISIS: Not Alone in Their Conquest of Iraq.” The Washington Post, June 20. http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/06/19/isis-not-alone-in-their-conquest-of-iraq/.

[44] Schanzer, Jonathan. 2004. “Ansar Al-Islam: Back in Iraq.” Middle East Quarterly 11 (1): 41–50. http://www.meforum.org/579/ansar-al-islam-back-in-iraq.

[45] Coles, Elizabeth. 2014. “Kurds from Iraq Wage Holy War in Syria with One Eye on Home.” Reuters, February 4. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/04/us-iraq-kurds-syria-idUSBREA130GD20140204; Chalk, Peter. 2013. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. California: ABC-CLIO.

[46] Coles, Isabel. 2014. “Kurds from Iraq Wage Holy War in Syria with One Eye on Home.” Reuters, February 4. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/04/us-iraq-kurds-syria-idUSBREA130GD20140204.

[47] Coles, Isabel. 2014. “Kurds from Iraq Wage Holy War in Syria with One Eye on Home.” Reuters, February 4. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/04/us-iraq-kurds-syria-idUSBREA130GD20140204;  Chalk, Peter. 2013. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. California: ABC-CLIO.

[48] “Mullah Krekar Wins EUR 45,000 in Damages.” 2004. Online News. Expatica. April 21. http://www.expatica.com/nl/news/country-news/Mullah-Krekar-wins-EUR-45000-in-damages_117825.html.

[49] “Mullah Krekar Wins EUR 45,000 in Damages.” 2004. Online News. Expatica. April 21. http://www.expatica.com/nl/news/country-news/Mullah-Krekar-wins-EUR-45000-in-damages_117825.html.

[50] BBC. 2003. “Profile: Kurdish Islamist Movement.” BBC, January 13, sec. Media reports. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/not_in_website/syndication/monitoring/media_reports/2588623.stm.

[51] US Department of State. 2014. “Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” Other Release. Bureau of Counterterrorism. August 20. http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm.

[52] US Department of the Treasury. 2015. “Specially Designated Nationals List (SDN).” Resource Center. April 23. http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/SDN-List/Pages/default.aspx.

[53] Public Safety Canada. 2014. “Currently Listed Entities: Ansar Al-Islam (AI).” Listed Terrorist Entities. November 20. http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/cntr-trrrsm/lstd-ntts/crrnt-lstd-ntts-eng.aspx#2013.

[54] Attorney-General, Australia. 2015. “Ansar Al-Islam.” Australian National Security. March 3. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/Ansar-alIslam.aspx.

[55] Home Office, United Kingdom. 2015. Proscribed Terrorist Organisations. London. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/417888/Proscription-20150327.pdf.