A Department of Homeland Security Emeritus Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) Narrative


Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM)

Last Update

January 2015

Aliases

East Turkestan Islamic Party (ETIP); Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party; Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party of Allah; Islamic Party of Turkistan; Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP); Djamaat Turkistan[1]

History

The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) is based in the Xinjiang province of China, an area populated largely by Uighurs, who are ethnically Turkic and practice Sufi Islam.[2] ETIM seeks to separate the Uighur people, an ethnically and religiously unique group, from China to create “East Turkestan.” Historically, Xinjiang province has been briefly independent twice (1931-1934 and 1944-1949), claiming the name "East Turkistan Republic."[3] When the Chinese government reclaimed the region in 1955, it encouraged ethnic Han Chinese to move into the region, and forced Uighurs there to assimilate to Chinese culture.[4]

Unrest in Xinjiang continues, with ETIM able to mobilize approximately 100 members.[5] ETIM's first reported attack was in 1998.[6] According to the Chinese government, the group has continued to conduct small-scale violent attacks, allegedly with the support of al-Qa’ida and the Taliban.[7] The current leader of the ETIM is unknown, but evidence suggests that all three previous leaders of the organization were affiliated with al-Qa’ida.[8] The Chinese government has increased security and military measures in Xinjiang, which has led to repressive treatment of all Uighurs.[9] According to ETIM, the Chinese government has overemphasized the threat posed by their organization, [10] although al-Qa’ida and the Taliban are cited as the ETIM’s most significant allies and sources of funding, weaponry, and training.[11]

Almost all information regarding ETIM in the open source can be traced back to the Chinese government, making it difficult to assess the structure or operations of the group.[12]

Home Base

China (Xinjiang Province)[13]

Founding Year

Unknown. The first purported attack by ETIM occurred in 1998.[14]

Ideology

  • Ethnic-Separatist-Uighur
  • Religious-Islamist[15]

Specific Goals

  • The ETIM seeks to create an independent state for the Uighur people of Xinjiang.[16]

Political Activity

Unknown

Financing

  • Trafficking[17]
  • Extortion[18]
  • Kidnapping[19]
  • Funding from other groups: The ETIM is financed through support from other organizations; mainly al-Qa’ida and the Taliban.[20] In 2001, al-Qa’ida and the Taliban began providing the ETIM with training, weapons and financial support to fund its operations.[21]

Leadership and Structure over Time

  • The structure of the ETIM is unknown, although there are some experts that consider ETIM as an umbrella organization for several smaller violent groups in the region that are fighting for similar goals.[22]
  • Founding-2003: Hasan Makhsum (killed in 2003 by Pakistani army) [23]
  • 2003-2010: Abdul Haq becomes new leader (killed in 2010 by U.S. drone strike) [24]
  • 2010-2012: Abdul Shakoor Turkistani (killed in 2012 by U.S. drone strike)[25]
  • Current leader is unknown

Strength

  • 2014: fewer than 100 members.[26]

Allies and Suspected Allies

  • Al-Qa’ida (Ally)
    • In 2002, the UN Security Council listed ETIM for “participating in the financing, planning, facilitating, preparing or perpetrating of acts or activities by” Al-Qaida, with "a close financial relationship … major sources of funding for ETIM activities came from Usama bin Laden (deceased) and Al-Qaida and from organized crime such as drug trafficking, arms smuggling, kidnapping, extortion and looting."[27]
  • Taliban (Ally)
    • Abdul Haq (ETIM leader 2003-2010) was killed in a 2010 drone strike while traveling in a Taliban vehicle.[28] The UN Security Council has said that ETIM has "maintained close ties with the Taliban."[29]
  • Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (Suspected Ally)
    • In 2000, a Russian newspaper reported on a meeting the previous year in Afghanistan which included the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and ETIM, where Osama bin Laden agreed to fund each group. In 2001, a Kyrgyz newspaper named ETIM as a militant Uighur organization with links to IMU.[30] Additionally the United Nation’s Al-Qa’ida sanctions list describes ETIM and IMU as having close ties since ETIM was founded.[31]
  • Islamic Jihad Group (Suspected Ally)
    • In 2008, the groups were described as closely linked, however the full extent of their relationship is not clear.

Rivals and Enemies

  • China (Enemy)
    • The PRC has accused ETIM (and related aliases) of collaborating with al-Qa’ida to plan multiple attacks on Chinese interests throughout Asia,[32] though none appear to have progressed much beyond planning stages.[33]
  • Pakistan (Enemy)
    • In 2002, Pakistan extradited eighty ETIM militants to China.[34]
    • In 2003, Pakistani soldiers killed ETIM leader Hasan Makhsum during a raid on an al-Qaida compound in western Pakistan.[35]
    • In 2009, Pakistan extradited ten suspected ETIM militants to China, captured after they had attacked Pakistani soldiers.[36]
  • United States (Target)
    • ETIM militants fought alongside al-Qaida and Taliban forces in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom.[37]
    • The U.S. has targeted ETIM militants (fighting alongside al-Qaida), killing ETIM leaders in 2010 and 2012).[38]

Counterterrorism Efforts

  • Domestic Law Enforcement
    • Increased police presence, surveillance, border protection and counterterrorism efforts.[39]
    • Confiscated guns, grenades, knives, and explosive materials from ETIM members.[40]
    • Expanded police force by 5,000 to investigate terrorist activities, increased patrols in Xinjiang.[41]
    • Increased security, cameras, identity checks, random searches and censorship.[42]
  • International Military
    • The U.S. targeted ETIM militants fighting alongside al-Qa’ida since the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom, killing ETIM leaders in 2010 and 2012.[43]
    • Pakistani has fought ETIM militants fighting alongside al-Qaida and Taliban elements since 2002.[44]

United States Government Designations

  • Persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism (September 3, 2002)
    • The US Department of the Treasury froze the assets and prohibited any economic support for ETIM by American citizens.[45]
  • Terrorist Exclusion List (December 29, 2004)
    • The US Department of State prohibited anyone linked to ETIM from entering the United States.[46]

Other Governments’ Designations

  • Afghanistan (2002): Designated terrorist organization[47]
  • China (2002): Designated terrorist organization[48]
  • Kyrgyzstan (2002): Designated terrorist organization[49]
  • United Nations (2002): Designated terrorist organization[50]
 

[1] Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405; UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.

[2] Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.

[3] Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.;  BBC. 2014. “Xinjiang Territory Profile - Overview.” Online News. BBC News. October 14. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-16860974.

[4] Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.; BBC. 2014. “Xinjiang Territory Profile - Overview.” Online News. BBC News. October 14. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-16860974.

[5] Gunaratna, Rohan. 2014. “Global Terrorist Threat Set to Rise.” Online News. New Straits Times. January 10. http://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnist/global-terrorist-threat-set-to-rise-1.458950.

[6] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml

[7] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml;  Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405; BBC. 2013. “Q&A: East Turkestan Islamic Movement.” Online News. BBC News: China. November 1. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-24757974.

[8] Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405; Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.; UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.; Zhao, Huasheng. 2013. “China’s View of and Expectations from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.” Asian Survey 53 (3): 436–60.

[9] Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405; Li, Li. 2010. “Terrorist Gang Smashed: China Arrests Terrorists Involved in the Violent Attack Targeting Border Police in Xinjiang.” Online News. Beijing Review. July 5. http://www.bjreview.com.cn/nation/txt/2010-07/05/content_282980.htm; Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.

[10] BBC. 2013. “Q&A: East Turkestan Islamic Movement.” Online News. BBC News: China. November 1. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-24757974“Q&A: East Turkestan Islamic Movement,” BBC News China, Last updated: November 1, 2013, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-24757974; Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.Beina Xu, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria, “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement,” Council on Foreign Relations, Last updated: September 4, 2014. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179; Gunaratna, Rohan. 2009. “China’s Hardline Approach Won’t Work.” The Straits Times, July 17. via LexisNexis.Rohan, Guraratna, “China’s hardline approach won’t work,” The Straits Times, July 17, 2009.

[11] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.; Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.

[12] Boehm, Dana. 2013. “China’s Failed War on Terror: Fanning the Flames of Uighur Separatist Violence.” Berkeley Journal of Middle Eastern & Islamic Law 2 (1): 61–124. http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/jmeil/vol2/iss1/3; Kan, Shirley A. 2010. US-China Counterterrorism Cooperation: Issues for US Policy. CRS Report for Congress RL33001. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://www.chinafile.com/library/reports/us-china-counterterrorism-cooperation-issues-us-policy.

[13] Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.; Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405.

[14] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml

[15] Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.

[16] Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.; Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405; UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.; BBC. 2013. “Q&A: East Turkestan Islamic Movement.” Online News. BBC News: China. November 1. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-24757974.

[17] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.

[18] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.

[19] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.

[20] Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.; UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.

[21] Gunaratna, Rohan. 2009. “China’s Hardline Approach Won’t Work.” The Straits Times, July 17. via LexisNexis; Yardley, Jim. 2003. “China Brands Muslim Groups As Terrorists.” New York Times, December 16, sec. World. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/16/world/china-brands-muslim-groups-as-terrorists.html.

[22] VOA News. 2011. “What Is the East Turkestan Islamic Movement?” Online News. Voice of America. August 3. http://www.voanews.com/content/what-is-the-east-turkestan-islamic-movement-126763973/167829.html; Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.

[23] Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.; BBC. 2013. “Q&A: East Turkestan Islamic Movement.” Online News. BBC News: China. November 1. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-24757974.

[24] Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405; Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.; UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.; BBC. 2013. “Q&A: East Turkestan Islamic Movement.” Online News. BBC News: China. November 1. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-24757974.

[25] Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405; Zhao, Huasheng. 2013. “China’s View of and Expectations from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.” Asian Survey 53 (3): 436–60.

[26]  Gunaratna, Rohan. 2014. “Global Terrorist Threat Set to Rise.” Online News. New Straits Times. January 10. http://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnist/global-terrorist-threat-set-to-rise-1.458950.

[27] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.

[28] Zenn, Jacob. 2014. “Turkistan Islamic Party Increases Its Media Profile.” Biweekly Briefing on Current Affairs. The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst. February 5. http://www.cacianalyst.org/publications/analytical-articles/item/12909-turkistan-islamic-party-increases-its-media-profile.html.

[29] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.

[30] Kan, Shirley A. 2010. US-China Counterterrorism Cooperation: Issues for US Policy. CRS Report for Congress RL33001. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://www.chinafile.com/library/reports/us-china-counterterrorism-cooperation-issues-us-policy.

[31] United Nation’s Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida  and associated individuals and entities, Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing, QDE.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement, April 7, 2011. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml

[32] Permanent Mission of the PRC. 2001. “Terrorist Activities Perpetrated by ‘Eastern Turkistan’ Organizations and Their Links with Osama Bin Laden and the Taliban.” China Opposes Terrorism. November 29. http://www.china-un.org/eng/zt/fk/t28937.htm; Permanent Mission of the PRC. 2002. “‘East Turkistan’ Terrorist Forces Cannot Get Away With Impunity.” China Opposes Terrorism. January 21. http://www.china-un.org/eng/zt/fk/t28938.htm.

[33] Kan, Shirley A. 2010. US-China Counterterrorism Cooperation: Issues for US Policy. CRS Report for Congress RL33001. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://www.chinafile.com/library/reports/us-china-counterterrorism-cooperation-issues-us-policy.

[34] Boehm, Dana. 2013. “China’s Failed War on Terror: Fanning the Flames of Uighur Separatist Violence.” Berkeley Journal of Middle Eastern & Islamic Law 2 (1): 61–124. http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/jmeil/vol2/iss1/3.

[35] US Department of State. 2004. Country Reports on Terrorism 2003. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/31912.pdf.

[36] BBC. 2009. “Pakistan Extradites 10 East Turkistan Islamic Movement Activists to China.” The News (Islamabad). June 6. via LexisNexis.

[37] US Department of State. 2004. Country Reports on Terrorism 2003. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/31912.pdf.

[38] Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405.

[39] Xu, Beina, Holly Fletcher, and Jayshree Bajoria. 2014. “The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM).” CFR Backgrounders. September 4. http://www.cfr.org/china/east-turkestan-islamic-movement-etim/p9179.; Li, Li. 2010. “Terrorist Gang Smashed: China Arrests Terrorists Involved in the Violent Attack Targeting Border Police in Xinjiang.” Online News. Beijing Review. July 5. http://www.bjreview.com.cn/nation/txt/2010-07/05/content_282980.htm.

[40] UN Security Council. 2007. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QDe.088 Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement.” Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities. January 31. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQDe088E.shtml.

[41] Li, Li. 2010. “Terrorist Gang Smashed: China Arrests Terrorists Involved in the Violent Attack Targeting Border Police in Xinjiang.” Online News. Beijing Review. July 5. http://www.bjreview.com.cn/nation/txt/2010-07/05/content_282980.htm.

[42] Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405.

[43] Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405.

[44] Boehm, Dana. 2013. “China’s Failed War on Terror: Fanning the Flames of Uighur Separatist Violence.” Berkeley Journal of Middle Eastern & Islamic Law 2 (1): 61–124. http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/jmeil/vol2/iss1/3; US Department of State. 2004. Country Reports on Terrorism 2003. Country Reports on Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/31912.pdf; BBC. 2009. “Pakistan Extradites 10 East Turkistan Islamic Movement Activists to China.” The News (Islamabad). June 6. via LexisNexis.

[45] Office of Foreign Assets Control. 2015. “Executive Order 13224 - Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions with Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism.” US Department of the Treasury. http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/Documents/terror.pdf.

[46] US Department of State. 2004. “Terrorist Exclusion List.” Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123086.htm

[47] Zhao, Huasheng. 2013. “China’s View of and Expectations from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.” Asian Survey 53 (3): 436–60.; Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405.

[48] Zhao, Huasheng. 2013. “China’s View of and Expectations from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.” Asian Survey 53 (3): 436–60.; Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405.

[49] Zhao, Huasheng. 2013. “China’s View of and Expectations from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.” Asian Survey 53 (3): 436–60.; Potter, Philip BK. 2013. “Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications.” Strategic Studies Quarterly 7 (4): 70–92. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots627=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&id=175405.

[50] Wang, John Z. 2003. “Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement: A Case Study of a New Terrorist Organization in China.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 47 (5): 568–84. https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=202379; Zhao, Huasheng. 2013. “China’s View of and Expectations from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.” Asian Survey 53 (3): 436–60.