A Department of Homeland Security Emeritus Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

Hizballah Narrative


Hizballah

Last Update

April 2015

Aliases

Hezballah; Hezbollah ; Hizb’allah; Hezb’allah; Hizb Allah; Hezb Allah; Party of God; Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine; The Islamic Resistance; Islamic Jihad; Islamic Jihad Organization; Revolutionary Justice Organization; Organization of the Oppressed on Earth; Organization of Right Against Wrong; Ansar Allah; Followers of the Prophet Muhammed

History

Hizballah formed in 1982 in response to the 1982 Israeli invasion and occupation of southern Lebanon during the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990).[1] The group was conceived through the unification and collaboration of various independent Shiite militant groups that sought to resist invading Israeli forces.[2] Hizballah is a Shiite Islamist group heavily influenced by the Iranian Revolution, as well as the al-Dawa al-Islamiya, an Iraqi militant group that followed the teachings of Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr.[3] Many of Hizballah’s members were drawn from groups such as al-Dawa al-Islamiya and the Amal Movement, which is a Lebanese Shiite militia. By the end of 1982, a rivalry began between Hizballah and the Amal Movement due to competition over leadership amongst the Lebanese Shiite community.[4]

Initially, Hizballah had a relatively decentralized structure; however in 1985 it established its manifesto that gave the group its political platform and a stronger organizational structure.[5] Hizballah originally sought to create an Islamic theocratic state in Lebanon based off the Iranian model and to expel American, Israeli and French forces from Lebanon. However, this is no longer a part of their agenda due to the Taif Agreement of 1989, which ended the Lebanese War and forced foreign forces to withdraw. Israel withdrew its troops and returned all Lebanese territory in 2000.[6] In December 2009, Hizballah announced a change in its political platform to step away from creating an Islamic state in Lebanon, instead seeking to increase Islamic fundamentalism within the democratic system.[7] Currently the group seeks to spread Shiite Islam, destroy the state of Israel, liberate Palestine, and restore Palestinian rights.[8]

Hizballah’s support significantly increased at three specific points in time. The first instance was in 1983 after Hizballah bombed the U.S. embassy in Beirut as well as U.S. marine barracks.[9] The second was in the summer of 2006 after Hizballah captured two Israeli soldiers, launching a month-long war with Israel. This war ended in August due to a United Nations (UN) brokered ceasefire.[10] The third period of growth for Hizballah was in 2008 after the Lebanese government sought to restrict Hizballah’s arms and communications. Hizballah responded by seizing West Beirut, creating an 18-month long political crisis. In an attempt to end the crisis, the group was granted veto power through the Doha Agreement (2008) and was able to maintain its arms and secured communications.[11]

Home Base

Lebanon

Founding Year

1982

Ideology

Religious-Islamic-Shiite.[12]

Specific Goals

  • Spread Shiite Islam[13]
  • Create Islamic state in Lebanon[14]
    • In December 2009 Hizballah announced a change in their political platform in which they no longer aim to create an Islamic state in Lebanon, but rather implement Islamic fundamentalism into Lebanon’s democratic system.[15]
  • Destruction of the state of Israel[16]
  • Liberation of Palestine and restoration of Palestinian rights[17]

Political Activity

  • Hizballah has participated in Lebanese politics since 1989, following the Taif Agreement.[18]
    • Hizballah won 8 of 128 seats in Lebanese parliament in 1992, and has continued to hold seats since then.[19]
  • Support notably grew in 2006 during the group’s war with Israel.[20]
  • Hizballah’s political influence grew again in May 2008 after the party was granted veto power through the Doha Agreement in order to end an eighteen month-long political crisis.[21]

Financing

  • Trafficking: Received funding through illegal drug activities.[22]
  • Charities/Donations: Hizballah receives donations from Shiite communities throughout the world. [23]
  • State Sponsorship:
    • The Iranian government has sponsored Hizballah since its formation and is estimated to give Hizballah about 200 million dollars annually in funding.[24]
    • The Syrian government also provides financial aid to Hizballah. [25]

Leadership and Structure over Time

  • Divided Paramilitary and Political Wings led by a governing council.[26]
  • Seven member consultative council, the Majlis al Shura, which oversees five subgroups.
  • Subgroups contain the political assembly, jihad assembly, parliamentary assembly, executive assembly, and judicial assembly.[27]
  • Majlis al Shura selects a secretary general to hold leadership for a three year term.[28]
  • Hizballah additionally has an independent branch known as the External Security Organization that was established in 1993 and is responsible for the planning and execution of attacks against enemies outside of Lebanon.[29]
  • 1982-1993: Abbas al Musawi (killed by Israeli military)[30]
  • 1993-present: Hassan Nasrallah[31]

Strength

  • 1998: Several thousand[32]
  • 1999: Several thousand[33]
  • 2002: Greater than 2,000[34]
  • 2012: 6,000[35]

Allies and Suspected Allies

  • Iranian government (ally)
    • The Iranian government and Hizballah are closely allied and Iran has providing funding, weaponry, logistical support, and training for the group since its founding.[36]
  • Syrian government (ally)
    • The Syrian government provides military, political, and logistical support for Hizballah particularly after 2005.[37]
    • When the Syrian Civil War began, Hizballah assisted the Syrian armed forces.[38]
  • Hamas (ally)
    • Hizballah provides military training, financial and logistical support to Hamas.[39]
  • Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (ally)
    • Hizballah acts as a facilitator in the transfer of funds and logistical support from Iran to Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade.[40]
  • Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)[41] (ally)
    • Hezbollah began providing the PIJ with funding, training and logistical support in 2000.[42]
  • Mahdi Army (ally)
    • From 2004 to 2007 there were reports of Hizballah training militants from the Mahdi Army.[43]
  • Asa'Ib Ahl Al-Haqq (ally)
    • Hezbollah has trained and supported Asa'Ib Ahl Al-Haqq.[44]
  • Islamic Courts Union (ICU)
    • Reports emerged in 2006 and 2007 that Hizballah supported the ICU in Somalia and were providing military training and arms to the group.[45]

Rivals and Enemies

  • Israel (enemy)
    • Hizballah was founded in direct response to Israel’s 1982 invasion and occupation of southern Lebanon.[46]
    • One of Hizballah’s central goals is the destruction of the state of Israel.[47]
    • During a month-long conflict between Hizballah and Israeli in 2006 (aka “The July War”), Hizballah fired thousands of rockets into Israeli territory. Hizballah periodically shells Israeli forces near the Lebanese border.[48]
  • United States (enemy)
    • One of Hizballah’s principal goals has been the expulsion of United States’ interest from Lebanon.
    • The U.S. government blames Hizballah for a number of attacks during the 1980s, including 1983 bombings of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut and U.S. Marine barracks.[49]
  • Amal Movement (rival)
    • The Amal Movement is another prominent Shiite political party in Lebanon. It shares some goals with Hizballah (e.g., promoting Shi’a Islam within Lebanon) but has often disagreed in how it may be achieved (conventional politics versus militant resistance).[50]
  • Free Syrian Army (enemy)
    • Hizballah has publicly sided with Bashar al-Asad in the Syrian civil war, sending militias into Syria to fight Syrian opposition groups. The FSA and Hizbollah have regularly traded ultimatums during the hostilities. [51]
  • Future Bloc[52] (enemy)
    • Future Bloc (aka Future Movement) is a center-right party, and largest member of the March 14 Alliance, which won a majority in the 2009 parliamentary elections. In May 2011, a Future Bloc official condemned Hizballah as a terrorist organization.[53] Future Bloc members continued to accuse Hizballah of the assassination of Future Bloc politicians, from PM Rafik Hariri (2005) to Mohammed Shatah (2013).[54]
  • Abdullah Azzam Brigades (rival)
    • Abdullah Azzam Brigades represents the Sunnis in Lebanon and is opposed to Hizballah’s Shiite rule.[55]

Counterterrorism Efforts

  • Domestic Political:
    • The 1989 Taif Agreement called for the disarmament of militias in Lebanon, although Hizballah has remained armed.[56]
  • International Political:
    • UN Resolution 1701 (2004) calls for the disarmament of Lebanese militias, including Hizballah.[57]
  • International Military:
    • Israel’s 1982 invasion and occupation of southern Lebanon (until 2000) was used to justify the formation of Hizballah as a violent resistance movement.[58]
    • Israel and Hizballah engaged in direct armed conflict in 2006 (aka “The July War”).[59]
    • Israel has also been accused of targeting Hizballah infrastructure (e.g., Hizballah’s headquarters)[60] and several high-ranking Hizballah officials[61] outside of declared conflicts.

United States Government Designations

  • Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO), October 8, 1997.[62]
  • Specially Designated Global Terrorist, October 2001: In addition to Hizballah being designated, the following individuals and entities have also been designated and sanctioned as providing support to Hizballah:
    • Al Manar, al Nour, and The Lebanese Media Group, March 23, 2006[63]
    • Ali Mohamed Saleh, June 27, 2012[64]
    • Ali Ibrahim al-Watfa, Abbas Loutfe Fawaz, Ali Ahmad Chehade, Hicham Nmer Khanafer, June 11, 2013[65]
    • Mustapha Fawaz, Fouzi Fawaz, Abdallah Tahini, Amigo Supermarket Limited, Wonderland Amusement Park and Resort Ltd, and Kafak Enterprises Limited, February 26, 2015.[66]

Other Governments’ Designations

  • Australia (2003): Designated terrorist organization[67]
  • Canada (December 2002): Designated terrorist organization[68]
  • Egypt (April 2009): Designated terrorist organization[69]
  • European Union (July 2013): Designated Hizballah’s military wing as a terrorist organization.[70]
  • United Kingdom: Designated Hizballah’s External Security Organization in March 2001 and its military wing in March 2008.[71]
 

[1] BBC. 2010. “Who Are Hezbollah?” Online news. BBC News. July 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4314423.stm.

[2] Harfoush, Mohammad. 2013. “Hezbollah, Part 1: Origins and Challenges.” Al-Monitor: Lebanon Pulse. July 11. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/02/hezbollah-beginnings-challenges.html.

[3] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[4] Harfoush, Mohammad. 2013. “Hezbollah, Part 1: Origins and Challenges.” Al-Monitor: Lebanon Pulse. July 11. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/02/hezbollah-beginnings-challenges.html; Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[5] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[6] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155; Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[7] Traboulsi, Fawwaz. 2010. “Hezbollah’s New Political Platform.” Global Research: Centre for Research on Globalization. January 25. http://www.globalresearch.ca/hezbollah-s-new-political-platform/17186.

[8] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf; BBC. 2010. “Who Are Hezbollah?” Online news. BBC News. July 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4314423.stm;Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[9] Harfoush, Mohammad. 2013. “Hezbollah, Part 1: Origins and Challenges.” Al-Monitor: Lebanon Pulse. July 11. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/02/hezbollah-beginnings-challenges.html.

[10] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[11] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155; US Department of State. 2013. “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” In Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, 244–91. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[12] Harfoush, Mohammad. 2013. “Hezbollah, Part 1: Origins and Challenges.” Al-Monitor: Lebanon Pulse. July 11. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/02/hezbollah-beginnings-challenges.html; Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[13] BBC. 2010. “Who Are Hezbollah?” Online news. BBC News. July 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4314423.stm.

[14] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[15] Traboulsi, Fawwaz. 2010. “Hezbollah’s New Political Platform.” Global Research: Centre for Research on Globalization. January 25. http://www.globalresearch.ca/hezbollah-s-new-political-platform/17186; Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[16] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[17] Traboulsi, Fawwaz. 2010. “Hezbollah’s New Political Platform.” Global Research: Centre for Research on Globalization. January 25. http://www.globalresearch.ca/hezbollah-s-new-political-platform/17186.

[18] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[19] National Counterterrorism Center. 2015. “Hizballah.” Counterterrorism Guide. Accessed April 13. http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/hizballah.html.

[20] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[21] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.; US Department of State. 2013. “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” In Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, 244–91. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[22] US Department of State. 2013. “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” In Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, 244–91. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[23] US Department of State. 2013. “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” In Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, 244–91. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[24] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[25] US Department of State. 2013. “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” In Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, 244–91. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[26] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[27] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[28] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[29] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Hizballah’s External Security Organisation (ESO).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/HizballahsExternalSecurityOrganisationESO.aspx.

[30] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[31] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[32] U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 1998, Background Information on Terrorist Groups, April 1999, http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/1998Report/appb.html

[33] U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 1999, Background Information on Terrorist Groups, http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/1999report/appb.html

[34] “Selected Non-State Armed Groups,” Military Balance 102 (2002): 224-231, doi: 10.1093/milbal/102.1.224

[35] “Non-State Armed Groups,” Military Balance 112 (2012): 477-484, doi: 10.1080/04597222.2012.663221

[36] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[37] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf; Holly Fletcher, “State Sponsor: Syria,” Council on Foreign Relations, Feburary 1, 2008 http://www.cfr.org/syria/state-sponsor-syria/p9368

[38] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, May 30,

2013, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm  

[39] Jim Zanotti, “Hamas: Background and Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, December 2, 2010, https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41514.pdf

[40] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, May 30,

2013, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209989.htm 

[41]  US Department of State. 2013. “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” In Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, 244–91. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf; Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[42] Casey Addis and Christopher Blanchard, "Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress." Congressional Research Service,  January 3, 2011. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf

[43] "Al-Sharqiyah TV cites report on Hezbollah training for Iraqi Al-Mahdi Army," BBC Monitoring Middle East, August 20, 2007; Michael Gordon and Dexter Filkins, "Hezbollah Said to Help Shiite Army in Iraq," The New York Times, November 28, 2006.

[44] Sam Wyer, "The Resurgence of Asa'ib Ahl Al-Haq", Institute for the Study of War, December, 2012, http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/ResurgenceofAAH.pdf

[45] Ghulam Khan, "Bush's Somalian Escapade," The Nation, January 5, 2007; "Africa's Afghanistan," The Times (London), November 16, 2006.

[46] BBC. 2010. “Who Are Hezbollah?” Online news. BBC News. July 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4314423.stm.

[47] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[48] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[49] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[50] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf.

[51] Nemr, Mohammad. 2015. “FSA Vows to Continue Fighting Hezbollah.” Online news. Al-Monitor. January 22. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2015/01/free-syrian-army-commander-lebanon-hezbollah-regime.html; Ajbaili, Mustapha. 2013. “FSA and Hezbollah Inch toward War, Lebanon in the Crossfires Again.” Online news. Al Arabiya News. February 22. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2013/02/22/267633.html Saad, Hwaida, and Hala Droubi. 2013. “Hezbollah and Syria Rebels Clash on Border.” The New York Times, June 3. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/03/world/middleeast/hezbollah-and-syria-rebels-clash-on-border.html; McCarthy, Tom. 2013. “Free Syrian Army Leader Warns Hezbollah to Remove Its Soldiers.” The Guardian, May 28. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/may/28/free-syrian-army-hezbollah-soldiers.

[52] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155; Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf; “Free Syrian Army (FSA),” Jane's World Insurgency and Terrorism, November 11, 2013

[53] “Allouch: Hezbollah Qualifies as a Terrorist Group.” 2011. Online news. Ya Libnan. May 23. http://yalibnan.com/2011/05/23/allouch-hezbollah-qualifies-as-a-terrorist-group/.

[54] “Future Bloc Unleashes on Hezbollah.” 2015. Online news. The Daily Star. March 17. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2015/Mar-17/291159-future-bloc-unleashes-on-hezbollah.ashx.

[55] Hussein Abdallah, “Al-Qaeda threat against Lebanon Shiites genuine, serious – analysis,” The Daily Star, August 31, 2012; “Profile: Abdullah Azzam Brigades,” BBC News. November 19, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-25005417

[56] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf; BBC. 2010. “Who Are Hezbollah?” Online news. BBC News. July 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4314423.stm.

[57] Addis, Casey L, and Christopher M Blanchard. 2011. Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress R-41446. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41446.pdf; BBC. 2010. “Who Are Hezbollah?” Online news. BBC News. July 4. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4314423.stm.

[58] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[59] Masters, Jonathan, and Zachary Laub. 2014. “Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu’llah).” CFR Backgrounders. January 3. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155.

[60] BBC. 2006. “Israel Hits Hezbollah Leader’s HQ.” BBC News, July 14, sec. Middle East. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/5179862.stm.

[61] Goldman, Adam, and Ellen Nakashima. 2015. “CIA and Mossad Killed Senior Hezbollah Figure in Car Bombing.” The Washington Post, January 30. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/cia-and-mossad-killed-senior-hezbollah-figure-in-car-bombing/2015/01/30/ebb88682-968a-11e4-8005-1924ede3e54a_story.html; Luft, Gal. 2003. “The Logic of Israel’s Targeted Killing.” Middle East Quarterly 10 (1): 3–13.

[62] US Department of State. 2013. “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” In Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, 244–91. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[63] US Department of the Treasury. 2006. “US Designates Al-Manar as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Entity.” Press Releases. Press Center. March 23. http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/js4134.aspx.

[64] US Department of the Treasury. 2012. “Treasury Targets Major Money Laundering Network Linked to Drug Trafficker Ayman Joumaa and a Key Hizballah Supporter in South America.” Press Releases. Press Center. June 27. http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/pages/tg1624.aspx.

[65] US Department of the Treasury. 2013. “Treasury Sanctions Hizballah Operatives in West Africa.” Press Releases. Press Center. June 11. http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/jl1980.aspx.

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