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Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Narrative


Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

Last Update

May 2015

Aliases

The Tamil Tigers[1]

History

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) was created in 1976 in response to the growing ethnic and political tensions between minority Tamils and majority Sinhalese in the northern and eastern areas of Sri Lanka.[2] Tensions between the Tamils and the Sinhalese are rooted in exclusionary practices and policies of the Sinhalese-dominated government, albeit reinforced by differences in language and religion.[3] The purpose and goal of LTTE was to create a homeland for ethnic Tamils in northern and eastern Sri Lanka.[4]  In pursuit of this goal, the organization fought a civil war against the Sri Lankan government for 26 years, between 1983 and 2009.[5] From 1986 to 1990, the LTTE also attacked rival insurgencies it perceived as "traitors and opportunists," fully eliminating the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), and seriously impacting the capabilities of the People’s Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam (PLOT) and the Indian-sponsored Eelam People’s Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPERLF).[6] The LTTE ruled over northeast Sri Lanka as a de facto government, in which the organization shared much of the governing responsibilities with Sri Lankan local governments.[7] The group is responsible for creating and employing the use of the suicide belts and suicide bombers, while also being the first group to employ women as military soldiers.[8] Between 2002 and 2008, LTTE signed a Norwegian-mediated ceasefire, in which both sides agreed to stop fighting, bring an end to violent intimidation, and engage in a series of six peace-talks, supervised by Norwegian diplomats.[9] In 2008, the ceasefire was called off by the Sri Lankan government. After several suspected Tamil Tiger attacks, the government returned to militaristic and punitive methods to rid the country of the LTTE.[10] In May 2009, LTTE admitted to being defeated by the Sri Lankan government after a military attack in northeast Sri Lanka left them with very little territory and killed LTTE leader, Velupillai Prabhakaran.[11] During the height of its influence, the group was considered by the United States government and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) to be among the most dangerous and deadly extremist groups in the world.[12]

Home Base

Sri Lanka (Wanni region, in the north and east of the country)[13]

Founding Year

1975[14]

Ideology

Ethnic-Separatist-Tamil[15]

Specific Goals

  • Take control of Northern and Eastern Sri Lanka from the ethnic majority, the Sinhalese people.[16]
  • Create a homeland, Tamil Eelam State, in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka for ethnic Tamils.[17]

Political Activity

  • Organized into two wings, one of which is considered the political wing. [18]
  • The political wing acted as a de facto government in the northern and eastern regions of Sri Lanka, alongside the local Sri Lankan government.[19]
  • The political wing was created to handle issues concerning LTTE publicity, law enforcement, the judicial system, the LTTE global network, social service initiatives, and the collection of funds.[20]
  • The group engaged in a ceasefire with the Sri Lankan government under the supervision of the Norwegian Government from 2002 to 2008.[21]
  • Under the name, “Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission,” the government of Norway mediated the ceasefire in order to resolve the violent fighting between LTTE and the Sri Lankan government.[22] The Norwegian government also facilitated six mediated peace-talks between LTTE and the government of Sri Lanka from 2002 to 2003.[23]
  • In 2003, LTTE pulled out of the peace-talks with the Sri Lankan government, and by 2004, violence had increased within Sri Lanka.[24]
  • In 2008, the government ended the cease-fire with LTTE, international monitors leave Sri Lanka.[25]

Financing

  • Robbery: LTTE cadres have robbed banks for both income and political reasons ("for the revolution").[26]
  • Extortion: LTTE cadres extorted money from Tamil families abroad by threatening family members who still lived in in LTTE-controlled areas; Tamils in these regions often faced more direct threats.[27]
  • Smuggling/Trafficking:
    • Gold.[28]
    • Weapons: international cell and offices help facilitate the movement of arms around the world.[29]
    • Drugs and narcotics, particularly heroin, from Southeast and Southwest Asia, utilizing the routes developed for the movement of munitions.[30]
    • Human trafficking to the UK and parts of Europe, reportedly one of LTTE’s most lucrative investments.[31]
  • Charities/Donations: Charities and donations to raise money for its efforts.[32] The fundraising efforts of LTTE was often done through false names or false initiatives, including raising a large amount of money after the 2004 tsunami hit Sri Lanka.[33] The organizations used cover organizations and accepted donations on behalf of rebuilding efforts.[34]
  • Forgery: LTTE-forged passports have been discovered in Canada and the United Kingdom.[35] Forgery is believed to be a significant source of income for the group.[36]
  • Other: Licit and front business
    • Investments: Invested in stock markets, and legal businesses, including restaurants and a string of Asian grocery stores.[37]
    • Shipping: Shipping operations were utilized to ship both legal and illegal cargos.[38]

Leadership and Structure over Time

  • LTTE was founded and led by Velupillai Prabhakaran who acted as the chairman of the LTTE Central Governing Committee and the commander-in-chief of LTTE military units prior to his death in May 2009.[39]
  • LTTE operated in a hierarchical fashion. The Central Governing Committee oversaw and ran both the military aspects of the organization and the administrative issues.[40]
  • The organization was split into two wings, a military wing and a political wing.[41]
    • Within the military wing of LTTE, there were several subgroups, including the Sea Tigers (the sea unit), the Air Tigers (the air unit), the Charles Anthony Regiment (the elite fighting unit), the Black Tigers (the suicide unit), the women’s military unit, the Leopard Brigade, and the Secretive Intelligence Unit.[42]
    • The other wing of LTTE was the political unit. Those who ran the political unit were tasked with much of the civil administrative responsibilities, like law enforcement, judicial courts, and reconstruction and other social service initiatives when LTTE shared governing responsibilities with Sri Lanka.[43]
  • 1976-2009: Velupillai Prabhakaran led the group until he was killed by Sri Lankan government forces. [44]
  • Subunit Leaders: [45]
    • Soosai (Sea Tigers).
    • Charles Anthony (Air Tigers).
    • Balraj (Charles Anthony Regiment).
    • Pottu Amman (Secretive Intelligence Unit and intelligence chief).
    • Veerakathy Manivannam (International Secretariat).
    • B. Nadesan (head of the Political Unit and political advisor to the Central Government Committee and International Secretariat).

Strength

  • 1998: Approximately 6,000.[46]
  • 1999: Approximately 6,000.[47]
  • 2000: Approximately 6,000.[48]
  • 2001: Approximately 6,000.[49]
  • 2002: Approximately 8,000-10,000.[50]
  • 2003: Approximately 8,000-10,000.[51]
  • 2004: Approximately 8,000-10,000.[52]
  • 2005: Approximately 8,000-10,000.[53]
  • 2006: Approximately 8,000-10,000.[54]
  • 2007: Approximately 8,000-10,000.[55]
  • 2008: Approximately 8,000-10,000.[56]
  • 2009: Approximately 8,000-11,000.[57]

Allies and Suspected Allies

  • Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (suspected ally)
    • In the years following its formation, LTTE fighters trained with the PLO.[58]
  • Harakat-al Mujahideen (ally)
    • LTTE provided logistical support, including training, the procurement of weaponry and tactical strategies.[59]
  • Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) (ally)
    • LTTE provided logistical support, including training, the procurement of weaponry and tactical strategies.[60]
  • Moro Islamic Liberation Front (ally)
    • LTTE provided logistical support, including training, the procurement of weaponry and tactical strategies.[61]
  • Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) (suspected ally)
    • In 2008, the SIMI was described as establishing working relations with LTTE.[62]

Rivals and Enemies

  • Government of Sri Lanka (target). [63]
  • Sinhalese majority living in Sri Lanka (target).[64]

Counterterrorism Efforts

  • Domestic Political:
    • In 2002, the government of Sri Lanka and LTTE signed a Norwegian-mediated ceasefire, called the Sri Lanka Ceasefire Agreement.[65]
    • As a part of the ceasefire agreement, the Sri Lankan government engaged in peace-talks with LTTE, supervised by the Norwegian government.[66]
    • In 2008, the government of Sri Lanka decided to end the ceasefire and chose to return to traditional military strategies to rid the country of LTTE.[67]
  • Domestic Military:
    • After the ceasefire ended, the government of Sri Lanka appointed General Sarath Fonseka to lead 160,000 solders to fight 10,000 LTTE cadres in the northern region of Sri Lanka.[68]
    • On January 2, 2009, the army of Sri Lanka captured Kilinochchi, the capital of LTTE operations in Northern Sri Lanka.[69] Prior to the invasion, the Sri Lankan government and LTTE had a de facto agreement in Kilinochichi, in which they shared governmental responsibilities.[70]
    • When the Sri Lankan army took over Kilinochichi, it did severe and irreparable damage to the political wing of LTTE.[71]
    • In May 2009, the government of Sri Lanka claimed to have finally defeated LTTE, after its army took over the last remaining piece land in northeast Sri Lanka from LTTE and killed its leader, Velupillai Prabhakaran.[72]
  • International Political:
    • Norway led a Scandinavian delegation to help facilitate peace negotiations. [73]

United States Government Designations

  • Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO), October 8, 1997. [74]

Other Governments’ Designations

  • Australia (December 2001): Proscribed Entity. [75]
  • Canada (April 2006): Listed Terrorist Entity. [76]
  • United Kingdom (March 2001): Proscribed Terrorist Organisation.[77]
 

[1] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242; U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Stories, Taming the Tamil Tigers, January 10, 2008 http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2008/january/tamil_tigers011008.

[2] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM; “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html; Bruce Vaughn, Sri Lanka: Background and US Relations (CRS Report RL31707) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2011), http://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL31707.pdf; “Sri Lanka Profile – Timeline,” BBC News, January 9, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12004081.

[3] ARM Imtiyaz and Ben Stavis, “Ethno-Political Conflict in Sri Lanka,” Journal of Third World Studies 25 (2008): 25, http://www.federalidea.com/files/SLConflict.pdf; Cécile Van de Voorde, “Sri Lankan Terrorism: Assessing and Responding to the Threat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” Police Practice and Research 6 (2005): 181–99, doi:10.1080/15614260500121195; Neil DeVotta, “The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and the Lost Quest for Separatism in Sri Lanka,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 1021–51, doi:10.1525/as.2009.49.6.1021.

[4] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM

[5] Bruce Vaughn, Sri Lanka: Background and US Relations (CRS Report RL31707) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2011), http://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL31707.pdf

[6] Paul Staniland, “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Insurgent Fratricide, Ethnic Defection, and the Rise of Pro-State Paramilitaries,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 56 (2012): 16–40, doi:10.1177/0022002711429681.

[7] Kristian Stokke, “Building the Tamil Eelam State: Emerging State Institutions and Forms of Governance in LTTE-Controlled Areas in Sri Lanka,” University of Oslo, 2006, http://www.tamilnet.com/img/publish/2006/02/Building_the_state_1.pdf.

[8] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242

[9] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242; Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59.

[10] Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59; Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242

[11] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242; “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM.

[12] “Recounting the Lies: Frances Harrison, the LTTE and Sri Lanka,” Sri Lanka Media Watch, Engage Sri Lanka, October, 2012, http://www.defence.lk/news/pdf/Recounting_the_lies_20130328_07.pdf.

[13] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM.

[14] “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html

[15] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242

[16] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM.

[17] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM.

[18] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM; “The History of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera. April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.

[19] Kristian Stokke, “Building the Tamil Eelam State: Emerging State Institutions and Forms of Governance in LTTE-Controlled Areas in Sri Lanka,” University of Oslo, 2006, http://www.tamilnet.com/img/publish/2006/02/Building_the_state_1.pdf.

[20] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM; Kristian Stokke, “Building the Tamil Eelam State: Emerging State Institutions and Forms of Governance in LTTE-Controlled Areas in Sri Lanka,” University of Oslo, 2006, http://www.tamilnet.com/img/publish/2006/02/Building_the_state_1.pdf.

[21] Royal Norwegian Embassy, Colombo, Role of Norway 2000-06, Norway: The Official Site in Sri Lanka, October 6, 2009, http://www.norway.lk/News_and_events/Relations-between-Norway-and-Sri-Lanka/Peace-Process/Role-of-Norway1/#.VWX75VWrRhG; Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242; Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59.

[22] “Speeches from Sri Lankan Peace Talks,” BBC News, September 17, 2002, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/not_in_website/syndication/monitoring/media_reports/2262023.stm.

[23] Royal Norwegian Embassy, Colombo, Role of Norway 2000-06, Norway: The Official Site in Sri Lanka, October 6, 2009, http://www.norway.lk/News_and_events/Relations-between-Norway-and-Sri-Lanka/Peace-Process/Role-of-Norway1/#.VWX75VWrRhG.

[24] “Sri Lanka Profile – Timeline,” BBC News, January 9, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12004081.

[25] “Sri Lanka Profile – Timeline,” BBC News, January 9, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12004081.

[26] “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html; Christopher C, Harmon, Terrorism Today, (London: Routledge, 2007)

[27] “Funding Terror: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and Their Criminal Activities in Canada and the Western World.” The Mackenzie Institute, December 25, 1995, http://www.mackenzieinstitute.com/funding-terror-the-liberation-tigers-of-tamil-eelam-and-their-criminal-activities-in-canada-and-the-western-world/.

[28] “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.

[29] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM.

[30] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM.

[31] Manjula Fernando, “Human Smuggling, Most Lucrative Business for LTTE Rump - Prof. Rohan Gunaratna,”  Sunday Observer, July 17, 2011, http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2011/07/17/fea08.asp; “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.

[32] Rohitha Bogollagama, “Global Action on Countering Terror: Lanka’s Perspective,” Speech presented at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Canberra, October 20, 2008, http://archives.dailynews.lk/2008/10/20/fea03.asp.

[33] U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Stories, Taming the Tamil Tigers, January 10, 2008 http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2008/january/tamil_tigers011008; Rohitha Bogollagama, “Global Action on Countering Terror: Lanka’s Perspective,” Speech presented at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Canberra, October 20, 2008, http://archives.dailynews.lk/2008/10/20/fea03.asp.

[34] U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Stories, Taming the Tamil Tigers, January 10, 2008 http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2008/january/tamil_tigers011008.

[35] Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, “Sri Lanka: Prevalence of Forged Identity Documents, Including Passports, Visas, Birth Certificates, Marriage Certificates and Death Certificates (2005-2006),” Responses to Information Requests LKA102359.E, 2006 http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/eoir/legacy/2014/03/06/LKA102359.E.pdf; Owen Bowcott, “Tamil Warlord Entered UK on Forged Passport,” The Guardian, December 21, 2007, http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/dec/21/immigration.world.

[36] “Funding Terror: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and Their Criminal Activities in Canada and the Western World.” The Mackenzie Institute, December 25, 1995, http://www.mackenzieinstitute.com/funding-terror-the-liberation-tigers-of-tamil-eelam-and-their-criminal-activities-in-canada-and-the-western-world/.

[37] “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.

[38] “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.

[39] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM.; “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.; Bruce Vaughn, Sri Lanka: Background and US Relations (CRS Report RL31707) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2011), http://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL31707.pdf.

[40] “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.

[41] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM; “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.

[42] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM; “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.

[43] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM; Kristian Stokke, “Building the Tamil Eelam State: Emerging State Institutions and Forms of Governance in LTTE-Controlled Areas in Sri Lanka,” University of Oslo, 2006, http://www.tamilnet.com/img/publish/2006/02/Building_the_state_1.pdf.

[44] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242; “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM.

[45] “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM.

[46] “Central and South Asia,” The Military Balance 98 (1998): 146-162, doi: 10.1080/04597229808460120

[47] “Central and South Asia,” The Military Balance 99 (1999): 151-170, doi: 10.1080/04597229908460132

[48] “Central and South Asia,” The Military Balance 100 (2000): 158-177, doi: 10.1080/04597220008460144

[49] “Central and South Asia,” The Military Balance 101 (2001): 152-171, doi: 10.1080/04597220108460156

[50] U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2002, Appendix B -- Background Information on Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April, 2003, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/20119.pdf

[51] U.S. Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 2003, Appendix B -- Background Information on Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 29, 2004, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2003/31711.htm

[52] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2004, Chapter 6 – Terrorist Groups, April 27, 2005, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/45394.htm.

[53] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2005, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, April 28, 2006, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2005/65275.htm.

[54] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2006, Chapter 6 -- Terrorist Organizations, April 30, 2007, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2006/82738.htm.

[55] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2007, Chapter 6 -- Terrorist Organizations, April 30, 2008, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2007/103714.htm.

[56] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2008, Terrorist Organizations, April 30, 2009, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2008/122449.htm

[57] “Selected Non-State Groups and Affiliates,” The Military Balance 109 (2009): 469-474, doi: 10.1080/04597220802709985

[58] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242

[59] “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html.

[60] “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html; Jim Luce, “In Sri Lanka: Explaining the Tamil Tigers,” The World Post, July 6, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jim-luce/in-sri-lanka-explaining-t_b_211249.html

[61] “The history of the Tamil Tigers,” Al Jazeera, April 28, 2009, http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2008/11/2008112019115851343.html; Jim Luce, “In Sri Lanka: Explaining the Tamil Tigers,” The World Post, July 6, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jim-luce/in-sri-lanka-explaining-t_b_211249.html

[62] “Meet Discusses Spread of SIMI in Puducherry,” The Pioneer (India), June 28, 2008.

[63] Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59; “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM; Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009, http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242.

[64] Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59; “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM; Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009, http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242.

[65] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009, http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242

[66] Royal Norwegian Embassy, Colombo, Role of Norway 2000-06, Norway: The Official Site in Sri Lanka, October 6, 2009, http://www.norway.lk/News_and_events/Relations-between-Norway-and-Sri-Lanka/Peace-Process/Role-of-Norway1/#.VWX75VWrRhG.

[67] Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59; Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242; “Sri Lanka Profile – Timeline,” BBC News, January 9, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12004081; Royal Norwegian Embassy, Colombo, Role of Norway 2000-06, Norway: The Official Site in Sri Lanka, October 6, 2009, http://www.norway.lk/News_and_events/Relations-between-Norway-and-Sri-Lanka/Peace-Process/Role-of-Norway1/#.VWX75VWrRhG.

[68] Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59.

[69] Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59; “Sri Lanka Profile – Timeline,” BBC News, January 9, 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12004081.

[70] Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59; Simon Montlake, “As Tamil Refugees Resettle, Their Well-Being Could Determine Sri Lanka’s,” Christian Science Monitor, February 2, 2010, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/2010/0202/As-Tamil-refugees-resettle-their-well-being-could-determine-Sri-Lanka-s.

[71] Nira Wickramasinghe, “Sri Lanka in 2008: Waging War for Peace,” Asian Survey 49 (2009): 59–65, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/as.2009.49.1.59.

[72] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242; “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE),” South Asia Terrorism Portal, Updated 2015, http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/terroristoutfits/LTTE.HTM; Public Safety Canada, Currently Listed Entities: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), November 20, 2014, http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/cntr-trrrsm/lstd-ntts/crrnt-lstd-ntts-eng.aspx#2038.

[73] Preeti Bhattacharji, “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (aka Tamil Tigers) (Sri Lanka, Separatists).” Backgrounder, Council on Foreign Relations, May 20, 2009 http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/liberation-tigers-tamil-eelam-aka-tamil-tigers-sri-lanka-separatists/p9242

[74] U.S. Department of State, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, August 20, 2014, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm.

[75] Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia and Sanctions, Consolidated List, May 21, 2015, https://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/security/sanctions/Pages/consolidated-list.aspx.

[76] Public Safety Canada, Currently Listed Entities: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), November 20, 2014, http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/cntr-trrrsm/lstd-ntts/crrnt-lstd-ntts-eng.aspx#2038.