Incident Summary:

11/11/1983: During the robbery of a pawnshop in Texarkana, Arkansas, United States, member of the Covenant, Sword, and Arm of the Lord (CSA), Richard Snell, murdered the shop proprietor, William Strumpp. Snell assumed that the owner was Jewish (even though he was not), and thus, shot him in the head with a semi-automatic pistol. During the robbery, Snell also stole guns, jewelry, and several thousand dollars in cash, to finance the goals and revolution of CSA.



United States

North America

region/u.s. state:



Attack Information
Type of Attack (more) Armed Assault
Type of Attack (more) Facility/Infrastructure Attack
Successful Attack? (more) Yes
Target Information (more)
Target Type: Business
Name of Entity pawnshop
Specific Description pawnshop in Texarkana, Arkansas
Nationality of Target United States
Target Type: Private Citizens & Property
Name of Entity William Strumpp, pawnshop proprietor
Specific Description William Strumpp, pawnshop proprietor, who was assumed to be Jewish
Nationality of Target United States
Additional Information
Hostages No
Ransom No
Property Damage Yes
Extent of Property Damage Minor (likely < $1 million)
Value of Property Damage Unknown
Weapon Information
Type Sub-type
Firearms Handgun
Weapon Details
ruger .22 caliber semi-automatic pistol
Additional Information
Suicide Attack?No
Part of Multiple Incident?No
Criterion 1 (more) Yes
Criterion 2 (more) Yes
Criterion 3 (more) Yes
Additional Information The victim, William Strumpp, was shot in the head three times. The perpetrator, Richard Snell, assumed that the owner of the pawnshop was Jewish (even though he was actually Episcopalian) and believed that since he was Jewish, he was evil and "just needed to die," as the members of CSA believed that Jews were inferior and were trying to overthrow the US government, who they perceived to be dominated by a Zionist Occupation. Additionally, the robbery was an attempt to gain money to finance the CSA's revolution.
Perpetrator Group Information
Group Name Claimed Responsibility
Covenant, Sword and the Arm of the Lord (CSA) No
Perpetrator Statistics
Number of Perpetrators 1
Number of Captured Perpetrators 1
Casualty Information
Total Number of Casualties 1 Fatalities / 0 Injured
Total Number of Fatalities 1
Number of U.S. Fatalities 1
Number of Perpetrator Fatalities 0
Total Number of Injured 0
Number of U.S. Injured 0
Number of Perpetrators Injured 0
Mark S. Hamm, "Terrorism as Crime: From Oklahoma City to Al-Qaeda and Beyond," New York University Press, 2007.
Federal Bureau of Investigation, "The Covenant, Sword and Arm of the Lord: Domestic Security/Terrorism Investigation," Official File Documents, FBI, DOJ, July 27, 1987.
James Jefferson, "White Supremacist Put to Death After Killing Pawn Shop Operator," The Associated Press, April 20, 1995.