Conceptual inconsistencies in routine activities theory are illustrated by demonstrating how gang membership, gun carrying, and employment can be categorized as both risk and protective factors in a high-poverty context. Two waves of longitudinal data from a high-poverty sample of African American youth were used to examine the determinants of victimization risk. Bivariate analyses indicated that gang membership, gun carrying, and employment status are significant risk factors for violent victimization, but these effects were mediated by measures of lifestyles (e.g. demographic and family factors, deviant lifestyles) included as controls in the full multivariate model. In other words, the strong postive.
Spano, Richard, and Joshua D. Freilich, John Bolland. 2008. "Gangs, Guns, and Employment: Applying Routine Activities Theory to Explain Violent Victimization Among Inner City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty." Justice Quarterly (June): 381-410. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820802024911#preview