A Department of Homeland Security Emeritus Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

BAAD - Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) - 2012


Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)

The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) is a largely Islamist Sudanese armed opposition group seeking national reform and regime change within Sudan.[2] Dr. Khalil Ibrahim Muhammed, while completing his master’s degree in public health in the Netherlands in 2001, declared the founding of JEM following the dissolution of the national assembly and the declaration of a state of emergency by Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir. In the state of emergency, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir purged the followers of rival politician Hassan al-Turabi from government. The majority of the founding members were former members of the Popular Congress Party (PCP) (also known as Islamist Popular Congress) of al-Turabi, a spearhead of Sudan’s Islamic revolution.[3] African Muslims from Darfur who were forced to leave also went on to join the newly formed JEM.[4]

JEM leaders call for the creation of a new country named the United Regions of Sudan. This proposed new nation would entail a rotating presidency, granting all six Sudanese regions a term in power.[5] Khalil Ibrahim remained leader until his death in 2011.[6] Following Khalil Ibrahim’s death, the group was led by his brother Jibril Ibrahim and a new 18-member JEM executive office.[7]

In 2008, JEM gained national recognition after launching an attack on Khartoum.[8] Prior to a mid-2010 government offensive that led to significant casualties, JEM was estimated to have more than 5,000 men. JEM soldiers were armed with mounted anti-aircraft guns, rocket-propelled grenades, several hundred vehicles and at least two tanks.[9] View full narrative

Quick Facts for 2012


251 (Total of 1998 through 2012)

Religious, Ethnic

Less than or equal to 5,000

Territorial Control:
Controls Territory (1)

Funding through Drug Trafficking:

Sorry, but there are no organizational details available for this group at this time.


Primary Ideology

  • Ag = Anti-Globalization
  • An = Anarchist
  • En = Ethnic
  • Ev = Environmental
  • Le = Leftist
  • Re = Religious
  • Ri = Rightist
  • Se = Separatist
  • Su = Supremacist
  • Vi = Vigilante


  •  Ally
  •  Suspected Ally
  •  Rival
  •  Violence
  •  Mixed Relations


  •  Blue 0 - 1479 fatalities
  •  Green 1479 - 2958 fatalities
  •  Yellow 2958 - 4437 fatalities
  •  Orange 4437 - 5916 fatalities
  •  Red 5916 - 7396 fatalities

Lethality is calculated as the total number of fatalities from 1998-2012.


Icon sizes depict approximate relative sizes of the organizations.

  • Smallest 0 - 10 members
  •   11 - 100 members
  •   101 - 1000 members
  •   1001 - 10000 members
  • Largest > 10000 members

Other Notes

Icons with no color coding or ideology icon have no detailed data at this time, and are provided as relationship information only.