A Department of Homeland Security Emeritus Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

BAAD - Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM) - 2012


Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM)

Though it has informal origins dating back to the 1970s, Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM) was officially established in 1994 as a result of insurgencies in the Malakand District against the Pakistani judicial system.[2] The group fights violently for Islamic influence in the Pakistani courts in the hopes of establishing a proper Islamic state.[3] Following the siege of the Red Mosque (Lal Masjid) in Islamabad in 2007, TNSM is believed to have merged with TTP.[4] Since then, TNSM fighters have actively waged war in Islamabad’s Swat Valley to extend the reach of its extreme variant of Sharia law.[5]

The group has multiple leaders, including one who goes by the alias Mullah Radio and another named Sufi Mohammed.[6] The TNSM numbered approximately 25,000 in May 1994, although its strength has decreased since then.[7] The government of the United Kingdom alleges that the group has provided direct support to al-Qa’ida and the Taliban, although the exact nature of this support is unknown.[8] Pakistan typically focuses its counterterrorism efforts primarily on military operations in Bajur and Swat, and the United States is modifying its military strategy into a more aggressive one.[9] View full narrative

Quick Facts for 2012


10 (Total of 1998 through 2012)


Approximately 4,500

Territorial Control:
Does Not Control Territory (0)

Funding through Drug Trafficking:

Sorry, but there are no organizational details available for this group at this time.


Primary Ideology

  • Ag = Anti-Globalization
  • An = Anarchist
  • En = Ethnic
  • Ev = Environmental
  • Le = Leftist
  • Re = Religious
  • Ri = Rightist
  • Se = Separatist
  • Su = Supremacist
  • Vi = Vigilante


  •  Ally
  •  Suspected Ally
  •  Rival
  •  Violence
  •  Mixed Relations


  •  Blue 0 - 1479 fatalities
  •  Green 1479 - 2958 fatalities
  •  Yellow 2958 - 4437 fatalities
  •  Orange 4437 - 5916 fatalities
  •  Red 5916 - 7396 fatalities

Lethality is calculated as the total number of fatalities from 1998-2012.


Icon sizes depict approximate relative sizes of the organizations.

  • Smallest 0 - 10 members
  •   11 - 100 members
  •   101 - 1000 members
  •   1001 - 10000 members
  • Largest > 10000 members

Other Notes

Icons with no color coding or ideology icon have no detailed data at this time, and are provided as relationship information only.