The resources on this page provide information about the data contained in the Data Portal, how the data was collected, and how the data was labeled.


This codebook provides information on the structure, content and the method of the data collection.


How can I access the data portal?

The data portal can be explored here. If you are interested in downloading the full dataset, please contact us.

How do I cite this data portal?

Please use the following citation when using the GRAT data in your own research, projects, or publications:

National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), University of Maryland. (2023). Global Responses to Asymmetric Threats [datafile].

Can I contribute to the data portal?

If you are a researcher interested in having your publications added to the GRAT database, please contact us.

Who are the members of the Irregular Warfare and Conflict Assessment Group (IWCAG)?

IWCAG is a multidisciplinary team of researchers focused on analyzing trends and strategies in irregular warfare in an era of great power competition. With backgrounds in political science, sociology, and criminal justice, IWCAG’s researchers have expertise in insurgencies, private military and security companies, international rivalries, computational sociology, online political communities, and media ecosystems. To get to know the IWCAG members, click here.

How were the publications collected?

The team developed a three-stage process to create a knowledge matrix to analyze the existing state of research on state responses to asymmetric threats across various pillars of irregular warfare. The process consists of identifying relevant sources, developing a bibliography, and extracting data from the literature through a manual coding process. IWCAG followed a literature extraction guide drafted by the project lead. For more information on our methodology, click here.

Who funded the data collection for the IWCAG dataset?

The portal is part of the Global Responses to Asymmetric Threats: Irregular Warfare Net Assessment Data Structure project, which is part of the Asymmetric Threat Analysis Center (ATAC), a joint program between START and the University of Maryland’s Applied Research Lab for Intelligence and Security (ARLIS). ATAC is funded by the Department of Defense's Basic Research Office under Contract No. HQ003421F0481. The GRAT portal is also supported by START internal funds. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the reports are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Defense, the University of Maryland, or START.

Who can I contact if I have questions about the data?

Inquiries about the IWCAG data, or START’s IWCAG research in general, can be made by contacting us.