Incident Summary:

04/30/1999: A nail bomb exploded in the Admiral Duncan pub in Soho, London, United Kingdom at 18:37, killing three people and injuring 79 others. This attack, targeting predominantly gay clientele at the pub, was the third of three bombings carried out in London by the same individual assailant in April 1999. David Copeland, identified by sources as a "self-confessed homophobic Nazi" was charged and received six life sentences for carrying out the three attacks. Combat 18 and White Wolves claimed responsibility for the attacks, but sources indicate Copeland was not affiliated with either group.



United Kingdom

Western Europe

region/u.s. state:



Location Details:
Westminster (London Borough). Old Compton St. in Soho

Attack Information
Type of Attack (more) Bombing/Explosion
Successful Attack? (more) Yes
Target Information (more)
Target Type: Business
Name of Entity Admiral Duncan Pub
Specific Description Predominantly gay pub clientele
Nationality of Target Great Britain
Additional Information
Hostages No
Ransom No
Property Damage Yes
Extent of Property Damage Major (likely > $1 million but < $1 billion)
Value of Property Damage Unknown
Weapon Information
Type Sub-type
Explosives Pipe Bomb
Weapon Details
The device was a plastic pipe filled with flash powder that had been removed from fireworks. The pipe was in a box filled with 1,500 nails at least six inches or longer, placed in a gym bag, and detonated with a timer connected to electrical igniters powered by batteries. Copeland accessed bombmaking instructions online in the Terrorists' Handbook and How to Make Bombs: Book 2.
Additional Information
Suicide Attack?No
Part of Multiple Incident?No
Criterion 1 (more) Yes
Criterion 2 (more) Yes
Criterion 3 (more) Yes
Doubt Terrorism Proper (more) No
Perpetrator Group Information
Group Name Claimed Responsibility
Neo-Nazi extremists Yes (Confirmed: Unknown)
Perpetrator Statistics
Number of Perpetrators 1
Number of Captured Perpetrators 1
Casualty Information
Total Number of Casualties 3 Fatalities / 79 Injured
Total Number of Fatalities 3
Number of U.S. Fatalities 0
Number of Perpetrator Fatalities 0
Total Number of Injured 79
Number of U.S. Injured 0
Number of Perpetrators Injured 0
Sarah Lee, “London Nail Nombings Remembered 20 Years On,” BBC News, April 30, 2019
Pat Clarke And Shenai Raif, “Bomber 'wanted race war' - Internet Used for Bomb-a-Week Plan,” The Journal (Newcastle), June 6, 2000.
Jeevan Vasagar, “Bomb killer 'wanted to be famous': Old Bailey hears that man accused of three murders idolised Hitler and Stalin and felt no emotion when he planted deadly device in pub,” The Guardian (London), June 7, 2000.