Incident Summary:

09/16/2004: Two Americans and a Britain were kidnapped from their home in Baghdad. Both of the Americans were eventually beheaded, the fate of the other is unknown. They worked for GSCS, a United Arab Emirates-based firm that has won building contracts in Iraq. Tawhid and Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack.




Middle East & North Africa

region/u.s. state:



Attack Information
Type of Attack (more) Hostage Taking (Kidnapping)
Successful Attack? (more) Yes
Target Information (more)
Target Type: Business
Name of Entity American GSCS Employees
Specific Description Eugene Armstrong and Jack Hensley
Nationality of Target United States
Target Type: Business
Name of Entity British GSCS Employee
Specific Description Kenneth Bigley
Nationality of Target Great Britain
Additional Information
Hostages Yes
Number of Hostages 3
US Hostages 2
Outcome Unknown
Ransom No
Property Damage No
Weapon Information
Type Sub-type
Firearms Automatic Weapon
Additional Information
Suicide Attack?No
Part of Multiple Incident?No
Criterion 1 (more) Yes
Criterion 2 (more) Yes
Criterion 3 (more) Yes
Doubt Terrorism Proper (more) No
Additional Information Both of the American hostages were beheaded. The fate of the other hostage was unknown.
Perpetrator Group Information
Group Name Claimed Responsibility
Tawhid and Jihad (suspected) Yes (Confirmed: Unknown; Mode: Posted to website, blog, etc.)
Perpetrator Statistics
Number of Perpetrators Unknown
Number of Captured Perpetrators 0
Casualty Information
Total Number of Casualties 2 Fatalities / 0 Injured
Total Number of Fatalities 2
Number of U.S. Fatalities 2
Number of Perpetrator Fatalities 0
Total Number of Injured 0
Number of U.S. Injured 0
Number of Perpetrators Injured 0
Waleed Ibrahim and Mariam Karouny, “Americans, Briton kidnapped in Baghdad: Gunmen storm house,” National Post, September 17, 2004.
Ed Harris, “Briton and Americans kidnapped in Baghdad,” Evening Standard, September 16, 2004.
Clint Williams and Don Plummer, “Captors behead American hostage; Militants threaten to kill Marietta man or Briton within 24 hours,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, September 21, 2004.