The intent of this study is to explore organisational factors that, both conceptually and operationally, facilitate or inhibit a police agency from adopting intelligence-led policing (ILP). Research to date is yet to explore organisational factors related to ILP among American law enforcement agencies. Drawing from original survey data of national law enforcement agencies as part of a 2009 US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice-funded project, the present study incorporates force field analysis to explore factors of ILP adoption in the USA. Findings suggest state and local agencies' familiarity with the intelligence-led concept and utilisation of open source and received information appear to be driving adoption. Conversely, formal policies, lack of sufficient personnel, training and a lack of intelligence-led decision-making appear to be inhibiting change towards the ILP paradigm. It appears agency size has minimal influence on an agency's shift towards ILP. Access to necessary resources and training appear to pose a significant challenge to law enforcement. Limited resources to develop an intelligence-led approach may result in the capability going underdeveloped or taking the form of other policing practices related to available resources – such as homeland security preparedness. This research is one of the first empirical explorations of ILP adoption, especially with a national sample of state and local agencies. Further conceptual clarity of the ILP paradigm is provided and organisational factors are discussed.
Carter, Jeremy, and Scott Phillips. 2013. "Intelligence-led policing and forces of organisational change in the USA." Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy 25 (December): 333-357. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10439463.2013.865738#.UzHJCoV7SHi