Policymakers, officials, and commentators have long been concerned with the influence of global public opinions on U.S. foreign policy and national security (Farwell, 2012). The last 100 years have witnessed the establishment, consolidation, division, reform, or abolishment of numerous overt and covert agencies designed to influence foreign audiences (Arndt, 2005). Traditionally, the U.S. Department of State has led overt foreign influence activities, while the CIA has led covert operations, both of which reached their zenith during the Cold War (Simpson, 1996). In the post-September 11, 2001-era, prominent examples of U.S. strategic communication activities have included the Bush Administration's "Shared Values" initiative in 2002 (Fullerton & Kendrick, 2006) and President Obama's Executive Order 13584, which established the Center for Strategic Counterterrorism Communications in 2011 to counter terrorist propaganda within interactive digital environments (Center for Strategic Counterterrorism Communications, 2013, para. 1).
Bean, Hamilton. 2017. "Strategic Communication and U.S. National Security Affairs: Critical-Cultural and Rhetorical Perspectives." In Strategic Communication: New Agendas in Communication, eds. Anthony Dudo and LeeAnn Kahlor. New York: Routledge. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=lang_en&id=nECTDAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA103&dq=%22Hamilton+Bean%22&ots=LXK3KneuR_&sig=oiWR2luKTcKN9UI8I3Fbo5a2UFQ#v=onepage&q=%22Hamilton%20Bean%22&f=false