The history of Islamism in the twentieth century is one of lay preachers calling for a return to Islamic values, laws, and governance in the modern world. Paradoxically, formally trained Muslim clerics play a relatively minor role in this influential movement. Hassan Al-Banna, the founder of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood movement, began his career as a schoolteacher. Abul A’la Mawdudi, the founder of the Indo-Pakistani Jamaat-e-Islami movement, spent much of his early life as a journalist. Sayyid Qutb was a teacher and literary critic before he became the author of Milestones, the manifesto of radical Islamism.
Hafez, Mohammed M. 2018. "Deadly Clerics: Blocked Ambition and the Paths to Jihad. By Richard A. Nielsen." Perspectives on Politics (November): 1222-1223. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/perspectives-on-politics/article/deadly-clerics-blocked-ambition-and-the-paths-to-jihad-by-richard-a-nielsen-new-york-cambridge-university-press-2017-256p-9499-cloth-2999-paper/F9AAFB16CE29C3C1368ED25A127886F3