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Direct Effects: The Impact of COVID-19 on First Responders

Direct Effects: The Impact of COVID-19 on First Responders


COVID-19 presents innumerable challenges to first responders. There are three ways it may affect your organization:

  • Environmental Effects – Changes in the operational environment, available resources, work conditions, or the level or type of demand for services.
  • Direct Effects – Threats to your personnel from COVID-19-related illness, including absenteeism, stress, and quarantines.
  • Indirect Effects – Impacts on your operations due to the combination of environmental and direct effects. These include changes to how services are delivered, training slow-downs, or increased healthcare costs.

This brief examines Direct Effects.

Publication Information

Full Citation: 

Meehan, Nathan, Alexander Garinther, and Michael McClary. 2020. "Indirect Effects: The Impact of COVID-19 on Organizations & Service Delivery," College Park, MD: START (November).

START Author(s): 
Nathan Meehan
Publication URL: 
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