A consortium of researchers dedicated to improving the understanding of the human causes and consequences of terrorism

Environmental Effects: Changes in Demand for First Responders due to COVID-19


COVID-19 presents innumerable challenges to first responders. There are three ways it may affect your organization:

  • Environmental Effects – Changes in the operational environment, available resources, work conditions, or the level or type of demand for services.
  • Direct Effects – Threats to your personnel from COVID-19-related illness, including absenteeism, stress, and quarantines.
  • Indirect Effects – Impacts on your operations due to the combination of environmental and direct effects. These include changes to how services are delivered, training slow-downs, or increased healthcare costs.

This brief examines Environmental Effects.

View Publication

Publication Information

Full Citation:

Meehan, Nathan, Alexander Garinther, and Michael McClary. 2020. "Indirect Effects: The Impact of COVID-19 on Organizations & Service Delivery." College Park, MD: START (November).

START Author(s):