The tactics of terrorist groups that are embedded in local communities are influenced by community reactions to the groups’ targeting of civilians. Assessing when socially embedded groups, such as the Provisional IRA (PIRA) and the Palestinian Hamas, are more and less likely to target civilians necessitates attention to the pattern of community condemnations and endorsements of their attacks.
Brooks, Risa. 2013. "How Community Ties Influence Terrorist Targeting of Civilians." National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (November).