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The Preparedness of Frontline Responders During COVID-19


COVID-19 presents innumerable challenges to first responders. Preparedness impacts the ability of frontline responders to effectively and safely support their communities. Preparedness relates to the ongoing cycle of organizing, training, equipping, and exercising to ensure an effective response to crises. However, several respondents felt their agencies were not prepared to face the conditions brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the words of a participant who worked for both police and fire organizations, “It was as if neither organization could anticipate correctly how to deal with what was clearly going to be a major, major problem for the world.” (INT. 7369)

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Publication Information

Full Citation:

Jacques, Tori Fox–St. and Nathan Meehan. 2021. "The Preparedness of Frontline Responders During COVID-19." College Park, MD: START (November).

START Author(s):