Drawing upon literatures in several disciplines, Norris and colleagues (in press) concluded that the resilience of communities, and consequently the wellness of communities, rests upon a network of adaptive capacities, particularly Economic Development, Social Capital, Information and Communication, and Community Competence. There are numerous ways in which efforts to build community resilience might also achieve the five essential elements of mass trauma intervention explicated by Hobfoll and colleagues. Thus, it is argued here that efforts to reduce risk and resource inequities, engage local people in mitigation, create organizational linkages, boost and protect social supports, cultivate trusted and responsible information resources, and enhance decision–making skills will augment more specific intervention efforts to promote safety, calming, efficacy, hope, and connectedness in the aftermath of mass trauma. Many of these outcomes require systems and social changes that can be the target of intervention efforts before as well as after disasters.
Norris, Fran, and Susan Stevens. 2007. "Community Resilience and the Principles of Mass Trauma Intervention." Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes 70 (January): 320-328. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2008-00602-003