This research elaborates on routine activity theory by incorporating a rational choice perspective on potential target's decisions to alter their routines or lifestyles in order to avoid violent encounters. We expect that the costs of an attack and the probability of retaliation will depend upon whether the offenders targeting strategy is opportunistic or deliberate a function of the relational distance between the offender and target. We construct hypotheses based on these ideas, and test them using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey. The results suggest female targets are more sensitive to an offender's targeting strategy. We conclude that policy might be more efficacious if it accounts for the influence that potential retaliation might have on the choice behaviors of targets.
Dugan, Laura, and Robert Apel. 2005. "The Differential Risk of Retaliation by Relational Distance: A More General Model of Violent Victimization." Criminology (March): 697-730. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0011-1348.2005.00021.x/pdf