Analyses of organizational-level characteristics demonstrate distinct changes over the past three decades in the behavior and ideologies of organizations that represent the interests of ethnopolitical groups in the Middle East. A smaller percentage of these organizations use violence now as compared to past periods, while a larger proportion than before engages in electoral politics or protests.
Wilkenfeld, Jonathon, Victor Asal, Carter Johnson, Amy Pate, and Mary Michael. 2007. "The Use of Violence by Ethnopolitical Organizations in the Middle East." College Park, MD: START (February).