Drawn from a first-of-its-kind database (the Bias Incidents and Actors Study [BIAS]) on nearly 1,000 violent and nonviolent hate crime offenders in the United States, this research brief examines violent hate crime offenders. The BIAS dataset can be used to identify the risk characteristics that distinguish violent hate crime offenders from those who engage in non-violent crimes, such as property vandalism and bias intimidation. Risk indicators of violence generally fall into one of four categories: the situational dynamics of the crimes, the identities of the victims, the motivations for offending, and the demographic and personal characteristics of the offenders.
Jensen, Michael, Elizabeth Yates, and Sheehan Kane. 2020. "Violent Hate Crime Offenders." College Park, MD: START (October). www.start.umd.edu/pubs/START_BIAS_ViolentHateCrimeOffenders_Oct2020.pdf