Telephone survey methodology was used to examine smoking and drinking after the September 11 terrorist attacks in a representative national sample. Most ever smokers and ever drinkers reported no change in substance use after the attacks. Smokers and drinkers who increased substance use were significantly more likely than those who did not to endorse a number of emotional reactions and functional difficulties. The pattern of associations of decreased use with emotional reactions and functional difficulties differed between smokers and drinkers. In general, decreased smoking was associated with denial of emotional reactions and functional difficulties whereas decreased drinking was associated with endorsement of these reactions and difficulties. The results have implications for research, clinical practice, and public health.
Pfefferbaum, Betty, and Carol North, Rose Pfefferbaum, Elaine Christiansen, John Schorr, Robert Vincent, Angela Boudreaux. 2007. "Change in Smoking and Drinking After September 11, 2001, in a National Sample of Ever Smokers and Ever Drinkers." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (February): 113-121. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18277219