A pilot survey was fielded online with panel respondents from Indonesia, Pakistan, and a number of Arab countries (3,000 respondents in all). Analyses of these pilot data strongly suggest that those respondents most likely to support attacks directed at civilians are characterized by beliefs rooted in religious, not political, conflict, while anti-Americanism that is rooted in political conflict is more likely to be associated with a rejection of the targeting of civilians.
Weber, Stephen, Steven Kull, Clay Ramsay, Clark McCauley, Gary LaFree, Arie Kruglanski, and Douglas McLeod. 2006. "Perceptions of the United States and Support for Violence Against America." College Park, MD: START (November).