Hurricane Katrina created the largest population of internally displaced persons in the history of the United States. Exceptions to Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA’s) usual eligibility requirements allowed states from across the nation to apply for Crisis Counseling Assistance and Training Program (CCP) grants to provide services to evacuees. Over a 16-month period, crisis counselors documented 1.2 million individual and group encounters across 19 CCPs. Most encounters (936,000, 80%) occurred in Presidential disaster-declared areas of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, but many (237,000, 20%) occurred in 16 smaller “undeclared” programs across the country. Programs showed excellent reach relative to external benchmarks provided by FEMA registrations for individual assistance and population characteristics. Programs varied widely in service mix and intensity. The declared programs reached more people, but the undeclared programs provided more intensive services to fewer people with higher needs.
Norris, Fran H., and Nikki D. Bellamy. 2009. "Evaluation of a National Effort to Reach Hurricane Katrina Survivors and Evacuees: The Crisis Counseling Assistance and Training Program." Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 36 (May): 165-175. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19365722/