COVID-19 presents innumerable challenges to first responders. There are three ways it may affect your organization: Environmental Effects – Changes in the operational environment, available resources, work conditions, or the level or type of demand for services.
Direct Effects – Threats to your personnel from COVID-19-related illness, including absenteeism, stress, and quarantines. Indirect Effects – Impacts on your operations due to the combination of environmental and direct effects. These include changes to how services are delivered, training slow-downs, or increased healthcare costs.
Meehan, Nathan, and Alexander Garinther, Michael McClary. 2020. "Indirect Effects: The Impact of COVID-19 on Organizations & Service Delivery," College Park, Md. November.