This project focuses on identifying transnational criminal organizations that exist in Western and Eastern Europe, as well as North, Sahelian, and West African countries that may be relevant to efforts to traffic illicit radiological/nuclear (RN) materials. This project will also contribute to an understanding of the threat posed by such criminal organizations colluding with terrorist and/or insurgent groups. Furthermore, the project will assess risks posed by particular trafficking pathways and modalities. This project furthers the geographic scope of previous work focused on Central America and the Caribbean, while refining the tools developed for the earlier project. This tool will help identify routes and models of transport that could support RN smuggling in the countries of focus.